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Osmolality control by inhalation or micro-infusions?

TitleOsmolality control by inhalation or micro-infusions?
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2005
AuthorsCiofani, G, Landi, A, Mazzei, D, Mazzoldi, A
JournalWIT Transactions on Biomedicine and Health
Volume9
Pagination559-570
KeywordsBioengineering
Abstract

A model of osmolarity is proposed in this paper. This model represents a typical example of embedded physiological feedback control in physiology. Extensive simulation tests with a compartmental approach (using the specific software SAAM II) have been performed, showing that the model agrees with the findings published in the literature of endocrine physiology and with medical practice. As a relevant example of application of the models, the diabetes insipidus pathology was considered. In the case of central insipidus diabetes, it is possible to predict effects of a therapy, giving out synthetic ADH (where ADH is the antidiuretic hormone, the vasopressine) for restoring homeostatic conditions. Two kinds of therapy were considered: supply by inhalation or by microinfusion. In the first case, we evaluated the effect of inhalation using a two compartmental model to describe the effect of commercial drug (minirin, that means desmopressine acetate), and compared results with data existing in the literature. In the second case, the aim was to have a helping tool in the study and development of micro-infusors with sensors and controllers embedded so as to be able to release a controlled drug quantity, accorded to the patient and optimized for avoiding hyper- or ipo-concentrations of plasma ADH hormone. In this case, we used a mono-compartmental model, considering that the drug is infused directly in the plasma; results are again compared with data existing in the literature and with experimental data.

Integral Input to State Stable systems in cascade

TitleIntegral Input to State Stable systems in cascade
Publication TypeMiscellaneous
Year of Publication2005
AuthorsChaillet, A, Angeli, D
KeywordsRobotics
Abstract

The Integral Input to State Stability (iISS) property is studied is the context of nonlinear time-invariant systems in cascade. A sufficient condition is given, in terms of the storage function of each subsystem, to ensure that the cascade composed of an iISS system driven by a Globally Asymptotically Stable (GAS) one remains GAS. Some sufficient conditions for the preservation of the iISS property under a cascade interconnection are also presented.

Adaptive nonlinear control of dynamic mobile robots with parameters uncertainty

TitleAdaptive nonlinear control of dynamic mobile robots with parameters uncertainty
Publication TypeMiscellaneous
Year of Publication2005
AuthorsBicchi, A, Caiti, A, Fontanelli, D, Greco, L, Viviani, R
KeywordsEmbedded Control, Robotics
Abstract

Research of a modular stabilizing control law for uncertain, nonholonomic mobile systems with actuators limitation has been investigated. Modular design allows the definition of a stabilizing control law for the kinematic model. The presence of uncertainties in the actuators parameters or in the vehicle dynamics has been treated both adding suitable components to the Lyapunov function and using parameters adaptation laws (e.g. adaptive control and backstepping techniques). Simulations are reported for the set point stabilization of a unicycle like vehicle showing the feasibility of the proposed approach. Torque limitations for a unicycle like vehicle has been investigated using backstepping techniques for the vehicle tracking problem. Simulations are reported.

Randomized Algorithms for Platform–based Design

TitleRandomized Algorithms for Platform–based Design
Publication TypeConference Paper
Year of Publication2005
Conference NameProc. IEEE Int. Conf. on Decision and Control
Pagination6638 - 6643
Publication Languageeng
AuthorsAgostini, A, Balluchi, A, Bicchi, A, Piccoli, B, Sangiovanni Vincentelli, A, Zadarnowska, K
KeywordsEmbedded Control, Robotics
Abstract

The design of automotive control systems is becoming increasingly complex as the level of performance required by car manufactures grows continuously and the constraints on cost and development time imposed by the market become tighter. A successful design, without costly and time consuming re-design cycles, can be achieved only by using an efficient design methodology that allows for component re-use and evaluation of platform requirements at the early stages of the design flow. In this paper, we illustrate a control-implementation design methodology for the development of embedded controllers by composition of algorithms picked up from libraries. Randomized algorithms and hybrid system theory are used to develop techniques for functional and architecture evaluations, which are implemented in a prototype tool.

Physical Human-Robot Interaction in Anthropic Domains: Safety and Dependability

TitlePhysical Human-Robot Interaction in Anthropic Domains: Safety and Dependability
Publication TypeConference Paper
Year of Publication2005
Conference NameProc. 4th IARP/IEEE-EURON Workshop on Technical Challenges for Dependable Robots in Human Environments
Publication Languageeng
AuthorsAlbu-Schaeffer, A, Bicchi, A, Boccadamo, G, Chatila, R, De Luca, A, De Santis, A, Giralt, G, Hirzinger, G, Lippiello, V, Mattone, R, Schiavi, R, Siciliano, B, Tonietti, G, Villani, L
KeywordsRobotics
Abstract

In this paper we describe the motivations and the aim ofthe EURON-2 research project ``\underline{P}hysical \underline{H}uman-\underline{R}obot \underline{I}nteraction in Anthropic \underline{Dom}ains'' (PRHIDOM). This project, which moves along the lines indicated by the 1$^{st}$ IARP/IEEE-RAS Workshop on Technical Challenge for Dependable Robots in Human Environments \cite{iarp01}, is about ``charting'' the new ``territory'' of physical Human-Robot Interaction (pHRI). To ensure these goals, the integration competences in control, robotics, design and realization of mechanical systems, human-machine interaction, and in safety-dependability of mechatronic systems is required. The PHRIDOM Consortium is composed of 5 partners from 3 different European countries.

From tele-laboratory to e-learning in automation curricula at the university of Pisa

TitleFrom tele-laboratory to e-learning in automation curricula at the university of Pisa
Publication TypeConference Paper
Year of Publication2005
Conference NameProc. IFAC World Congress
Publication Languageeng
AuthorsBalestrino, A, Bicchi, A, Caiti, A, Calabrò, V, Cecchini, T, Coppelli, A, Pallottino, L, Tonietti, G
KeywordsRobotics
Abstract

The design and development of computational infrastructures supporting existing tele-laboratory experiences in the field of automation and robotics are described. The goal of the activity is to provide a proper e-learning environment in which remote laboratory experiences are integrated in a coherent way. The addition of e-learning features, as self-assessment and progress monitoring tools, asynchronous tutor interaction, authentication, evaluation and follow-up features, has led also to the modification of the original tele-laboratory set-up.

Perceptual Bias in Tactile Flow

TitlePerceptual Bias in Tactile Flow
Publication TypeConference Paper
Year of Publication2005
Conference NameProc. First World Haptics Conference
Pagination17-20
Publication Languageeng
AuthorsBicchi, A, Dente, D, Scilingo, EP, Sgambelluri, N
KeywordsHaptics
Abstract

In this paper we report on results of a psychophysical experiment in which the optic illusion of Ouchi is reproduced in the tactile domain. In the vision field, when eyes scan over a texture grid, consisting in two rectangular checkerboard patterns oriented in orthogonal directions, the inset pattern appears to move relatively to the surrounding grid. A simplified 3D version of this pattern was realized and a group of subjects were asked to touch it while it was vibrating. Outcomes of this experiment are discussed in terms of tactile flow and the related aperture problem.

Does Active Exploration Suppress Tactile Flow Perception?

TitleDoes Active Exploration Suppress Tactile Flow Perception?
Publication TypeConference Paper
Year of Publication2005
Conference NameProc. First World Haptics Conference
Pagination660-661
Publication Languageeng
AuthorsDente, D, Scilingo, EP, Sgambelluri, N, Bicchi, A
KeywordsHaptics
Abstract

In this paper we report on results of a set of tests in which a group of subjects were asked to trace a straight line with the forefinger while actively scanning over a textured surface. A pattern of bumped dots, randomly distributed, and a diagonal striped pattern were used in order to investigate the occurrence of misleading perceptions based on the aperture problem of tactile flow during an active exploration. Obtained results are compared with findings achieved from a previous experiment based on passive exploration.

Refereed DesignationRefereed

Visual-based Feedback Control of Casting Manipulation

TitleVisual-based Feedback Control of Casting Manipulation
Publication TypeConference Paper
Year of Publication2005
Conference NameProc. IEEE Int. Conf. on Robotics and Automation
Pagination2203-2208
Publication Languageeng
AuthorsFagiolini, A, Arisumi, H, Bicchi, A
KeywordsRobotics
Abstract

In this paper, we present a method to control casting manipulation by means of real-time visual feedback. Casting manipulation is a technique to deploy a robotic end-effector at large distances from the robot's base, by throwing the end-effector and controlling its ballistic flight using forces transmitted through a light tether connected to the end-effector itself. The tether cable can also be used to retrieve the end-effector and exert forces on the robot's environment. Previous work has shown that casting manipulation is able to catch objects at a large distance, proving it viable for applications such as sample acquisition and return, rescue, etc. In previous experiments, the position of the target object was known exactly. In this paper, we present a first attempt at closing a real-time control loop on casting manipulation using visual feedback of moving targets. As accurate planning methods developed for off-line open-loop planning cannot be used in real-time, we develop a simplified model and control algorithm, whose effectiveness is demonstrated through experiments.

Notes

(ICRA05 B. Wegbreit Award for Best Manipulation Paper)

On the PE stabilization of time-varying systems: open questions and preliminary answers

TitleOn the PE stabilization of time-varying systems: open questions and preliminary answers
Publication TypeConference Paper
Year of Publication2005
Conference NameProc. IEEE Int. Conf. on Decision and Control
Pagination6847–6852
Date PublishedDecember
Publication Languageeng
AuthorsLor, A, Chaillet, A, Besancon, G, Chitour, Y
Conference LocationSevilla, Spain
KeywordsRobotics
Abstract

We address the following fundamental question: given a double integrator and a linear control that stabilizes it exponentially, is it possible to use the {\em same} control input in the case that the control input is multiplied by a time-varying term? Such question has many interesting motivations and generalizations: 1) we can pose the same problem for an input gain that depends on the state and time hence, a specific persistency of excitation property for nonlinear systems must be imposed; 2) the stabilization –with the same method– of chains of integrators of higher order than two is fundamentally more complex and has applications in the stabilization of driftless systems; 3) the popular backstepping method stabilization method for systems with non-invertible input terms. The purpose of this note is two-fold: we present some open questions that we believe are significant in time-varying stabilization and present some preliminary answers for simple, yet challenging case-studies.

Decentralized Cooperative Conflict Resolution for Multiple Nonholonomic Vehicles

TitleDecentralized Cooperative Conflict Resolution for Multiple Nonholonomic Vehicles
Publication TypeConference Paper
Year of Publication2005
Conference NameProc. AIAA COnf. on Guidance, Navigation and Control
Publication Languageeng
AuthorsPallottino, L, Scordio, VG, Frazzoli, E, Bicchi, A
KeywordsEmbedded Control, Robotics
Abstract

In this paper, we consider the problem of collision-free motion planning for multiple nonholonomic planar vehicles. Each vehicle is capable of moving at constant speed along paths with bounded curvature, and is aware of the position and heading of other vehicles within a certain sensing radius. No other information exchange is required between vehicles. We propose a spatially decentralized, cooperative hybrid control policy that ensures safety for arbitrary numbers of vehicles. Furthermore, we show that under certain conditions, the policy avoids dead- and livelock, and eventually all vehicles reach their intended targets. Simulations and experimental results are presented and discussed.

Supramodal response of human MT+ complex to visual and tactile perception of flow as demonstrated by fMRI studies in sighted and congenitally blind individuals

TitleSupramodal response of human MT+ complex to visual and tactile perception of flow as demonstrated by fMRI studies in sighted and congenitally blind individuals
Publication TypeConference Paper
Year of Publication2005
Conference Name11th annual meeting of the organization for Human Brain Mapping
Edited Volume1
Pagination129-129
Publication Languageeng
AuthorsRicciardi, E, Sani, L, Gentili, C, Vanello, N, Haxby, JV, Landini, L, Bicchi, A, Pietrini, P
KeywordsHaptics
Notes

Toronto

Design and Control of a Variable Stiffness Actuator for Safe and Fast Physical Human/Robot Interaction

TitleDesign and Control of a Variable Stiffness Actuator for Safe and Fast Physical Human/Robot Interaction
Publication TypeConference Paper
Year of Publication2005
Conference NameProc. IEEE Int. Conf. on Robotics and Automation
Pagination528-533
Publication Languageeng
AuthorsTonietti, G, Schiavi, R, Bicchi, A
KeywordsRobotics
Abstract

This paper is concerned with the design and control of actuators for machines and robots physically interacting with humans. According to criteria established in our previous work on mechanical-control co-design for intrinsically safe, yet performant machines, we pursue the Variable Impedance Actuation (VIA) approach, purporting actuators that can control in real-time both the reference position and the mechanical impedance of the moving parts in the machine. In this paper we describe an implementation of such concepts, consisting of a novel electromechanical Variable Stiffness Actuation (VSA) motor. The design and the functioning principle of the VSA are reported, along with the analysis of its dynamic behavior. A novel scheme for feedback control of this device is presented, along with experimental results showing performance and safety of a one-link arm actuated by the VSA motor.

Refereed DesignationRefereed

Output feedback control via adaptive observers with persistency of excitation

TitleOutput feedback control via adaptive observers with persistency of excitation
Publication TypeConference Paper
Year of Publication2005
Conference NameProc. 16th. IFAC World Congress
Date PublishedJuly
Publication Languageeng
AuthorsDe Leon Morales, J, Chaillet, A, Lor, A, Besancon, G
Conference LocationPraha, Tcheck Republic
KeywordsRobotics
Abstract

We address the problem of adaptive observer design for nonlinear time-varying systems which can be transformed in the so-called output feedback form (linear in the unmeasured variables). The observer design follows up previous work on adaptive observers for linear systems and has the form of the classical Luenberger observers for linear systems except that the observer gain is time-varying. A specific form of persistency of excitation is imposed to guarantee the convergence of the (state and parameter) estimation errors. As for the output feedback loop, we proceed using a cascade approach, i.e., we impose the appropriate conditions so that the closed loop system has a cascaded structure. Uniform global asymptotic stability may then be concluded based on cascaded systems theory.

Path-Following with a Bounded-Curvature Vehicle: a Hybrid Control Approach

TitlePath-Following with a Bounded-Curvature Vehicle: a Hybrid Control Approach
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2005
AuthorsBalluchi, A, Bicchi, A, Souères, P
JournalInternational Journal of Control
Volume78
Pagination1228-1247
Date PublishedOctober
KeywordsEmbedded Control, Robotics
Abstract

In this paper, we consider the problem of stabilizing the kinematic model of a car to a path in the plane under rather general conditions. The path is subject to very mild restrictions, while the car model, although rather simplified, contains the most relevant limitations inherent in wheeled robots kinematics. Namely, the car can only move forward, its steering radius is lower bounded and a limited sensory information only provides a partial knowledge of some state parameters. In particular, we consider the case that the current distance and the heading angle error with respect to the closest point on the reference path can be measured but only the sign of the path curvature is detected. These constraints are such to make classical control techniques inefficient. As the feedback information is both continuous and discrete, the hybrid systems formalism turns out to be well appropriate to model the problem. The proposed approach is based on optimal control techniques successfully applied in a previous work for following rectilinear path. We propose here an extension to the tracking of more general paths with moderate curvature. The stability of the closed-loop system is proved by means of the hybrid system formalism and hybrid formal verification techniques. Finally, the practicality of the proposed approach, in spite of non–idealities in real-world applications, is discussed by reporting experimental results.

On-line Robotic Experiments for Tele-Education at the University of Pisa

TitleOn-line Robotic Experiments for Tele-Education at the University of Pisa
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2005
AuthorsBicchi, A, Caiti, A, Pallottino, L, Tonietti, G
JournalInt. Journal of Robotic Systems
Volume22
Pagination217-230
KeywordsRobotics
Abstract

In this paper we describe work being done at our department to make the Robotics Laboratory accessible to student and colleagues, to execute and watch real-time experiments at any time and from anywhere. We describe few different installations, and highlight the underlying philosophy, wich is aimed at enlarging the lab in all the dimensions of space, time, and available resources, through the use of Internet technologies.

Notes

Special Issue on Internet & Online Robots for Telemanipulation

Analysis and Design of an Electromagnetic System for the Characterization of Magneto-Rheological Fluids for Haptic Interfaces

TitleAnalysis and Design of an Electromagnetic System for the Characterization of Magneto-Rheological Fluids for Haptic Interfaces
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2005
AuthorsBicchi, A, Raugi, M, Rizzo, R, Sgambelluri, N
JournalIEEE Transactions on Magnetics
Volume41
Pagination1876 - 1879
KeywordsHaptics
Abstract

In this paper the synthesis and design of a new device for the energization and characterization of Magneto-Rheological Fluids (MRF) for haptic interfaces are presented. Due to the core structure and feeding conditions, only a 3D numerical analysis provides an accurate prediction of the electromagnetic quantities and the rheological behavior of an excited specimen. The design constraints are shown in details and the results in terms of magnetic field inside the fluid and its spatial resolution are discussed.

Maximizing the stability radius of a set of systems under real-time scheduling constraints

TitleMaximizing the stability radius of a set of systems under real-time scheduling constraints
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2005
AuthorsPalopoli, L, Pinello, C, Bicchi, A, Sangiovanni-Vincentelli, AL
JournalIEEE Trans. on Automatic Control
Volume50
Pagination1790–1795
Date PublishedNovember 2005
KeywordsEmbedded Control, Robotics
Abstract

We address the problem of synthesising real-time embedded controllers taking into account constraints deriving from the implementation platform. Assuming a time-triggered model of computation for tasks controlling a set of independent systems and a real-time preemptive scheduling policy managing a single CPU processor board, we deal with two problems: 1- deciding whether a performance specification can be met on a given platform, 2- optimising performance on a platform. Decision variables of the design problems are the activation periods of the tasks , while the considered performance metric is the minimum stability radius attained over the different feedback loops, which is related to the technological feasibility of the controller and to the robustness of the controlled systems. The analytical formulation of the design problems enables efficient numerical solutions. The resulting control policies are directly implementable without performance degradation that may otherwise arise due to scheduling and execution delays.

Control synthesis for practical stabilization of quantized linear systems

TitleControl synthesis for practical stabilization of quantized linear systems
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2005
AuthorsPicasso, B, Bicchi, A
JournalRend. Sem. Mat. Univ. Pol. Torino, Control Theory and Stabil., I
Volume63
Pagination397–410
KeywordsEmbedded Control, Robotics
Abstract

In this work we face the stability problem for quantized control systems (QCS). A discrete–time single–input linear model is considered and, motivated by technological applications, we assume that a uniform quantization of the control set is a priori fixed. As it is well known, for QCS only practical stability properties can be achieved, therefore we focus on the existence and construction of quantized controllers capable of steering a system to within invariant neighborhoods of the equilibrium. The main contribution of the paper consists in a theorem which provides a condition for the practical stabilization in a fixed number of steps: not only the result is interesting in itself, but also it enables to construct a family of stabilizing controllers by means of Model Predictive Control (MPC) techniques. In the last part of the paper some results on the characterization of controlled–invariant sets are reviewed and a lower bound on the size of invariant sets is provided.