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Tools and approaches for analysing the role of mitochondria in health, development and disease using human cerebral organoids

TitleTools and approaches for analysing the role of mitochondria in health, development and disease using human cerebral organoids
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2021
AuthorsLiput, M, Magliaro, C, Kuczyńska, Z, Zayat, V, Ahluwalia, A, Buzanska, L
JournalDevelopmental Neurobiology
Keywordscerebral organoids; computational models; mitochondria imaging; mitochondrial dyes; reporter fluorescent proteins.
Abstract

Mitochondria are cellular organelles involved in generating energy to power various processes in the cell. Although the pivotal role of mitochondria in neurogenesis was demonstrated (first in animal models), very little is known about their role in human embryonic neurodevelopment and its pathology. In this respect human-induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSC)-derived cerebral organoids provide a tractable, alternative model system of the early neural development and disease that is responsive to pharmacological and genetic manipulations, not possible to apply in humans. Although the involvement of mitochondria in the pathogenesis and progression of neurodegenerative diseases and brain dysfunction has been demonstrated, the precise role they play in cell life and death remains unknown, compromising the development of new mitochondria-targeted approaches to treat human diseases. The cerebral organoid model of neurogenesis and disease in vitro provides an unprecedented opportunity to answer some of the most fundamental questions about mitochondrial function in early human neurodevelopment and neural pathology. Largely an unexplored territory due to the lack of tools and approaches, this review focuses on recent technological advancements in fluorescent and molecular tools, imaging systems, and computational approaches for quantitative and qualitative analyses of mitochondrial structure and function in three-dimensional cellular assemblies-cerebral organoids. Future developments in this direction will further facilitate our understanding of the important role or mitochondrial dynamics and energy requirements during early embryonic development. This in turn will provide a further understanding of how dysfunctional mitochondria contribute to disease processes.

URLhttps://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33725382/
DOI10.1002/dneu.22818. Online ahead of print.

A Configurable Architecture for Two Degree-of-Freedom Variable Stiffness Actuators to Match the Compliant Behavior of Human Joints

TitleA Configurable Architecture for Two Degree-of-Freedom Variable Stiffness Actuators to Match the Compliant Behavior of Human Joints
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2021
AuthorsLemerle, S, Catalano, MG, Bicchi, A, Grioli, G
JournalFrontiers in Robotics and AI
Volume8
Date Published03/2021
ISSN2296-9144
Keywordsarticulated soft robotics, artificial joints, humanoids, prostheses, variable stiffness
Abstract

Living beings modulate the impedance of their joints to interact proficiently, robustly, and safely with the environment. These observations inspired the design of soft articulated robots with the development of Variable Impedance and Variable Stiffness Actuators. However, designing them remains a challenging task due to their mechanical complexity, encumbrance, and weight, but also due to the different specifications that the wide range of applications requires. For instance, as prostheses or parts of humanoid systems, there is currently a need for multi-degree-of-freedom joints that have abilities similar to those of human articulations. Toward this goal, we propose a new compact and configurable design for a two-degree-of-freedom variable stiffness joint that can match the passive behavior of a human wrist and ankle. Using only three motors, this joint can control its equilibrium orientation around two perpendicular axes and its overall stiffness as a one-dimensional parameter, like the co-contraction of human muscles. The kinematic architecture builds upon a state-of-the-art rigid parallel mechanism with the addition of nonlinear elastic elements to allow the control of the stiffness. The mechanical parameters of the proposed system can be optimized to match desired passive compliant behaviors and to fit various applications (e.g., prosthetic wrists or ankles, artificial wrists, etc.). After describing the joint structure, we detail the kinetostatic analysis to derive the compliant behavior as a function of the design parameters and to prove the variable stiffness ability of the system. Besides, we provide sets of design parameters to match the passive compliance of either a human wrist or ankle. Moreover, to show the versatility of the proposed joint architecture and as guidelines for the future designer, we describe the influence of the main design parameters on the system stiffness characteristic and show the potential of the design for more complex applications

URLhttps://www.frontiersin.org/article/10.3389/frobt.2021.614145
DOI10.3389/frobt.2021.614145

Integrating Wearable Haptics and Obstacle Avoidance for the Visually Impaired in Indoor Navigation: A User-Centered Approach

TitleIntegrating Wearable Haptics and Obstacle Avoidance for the Visually Impaired in Indoor Navigation: A User-Centered Approach
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2021
AuthorsBarontini, F, Catalano, MG, Pallottino, L, Leporini, B, Bianchi, M
JournalIEEE Transactions on Haptics
Volume14
Start Page109
Issue1
Pagination1-1
URLhttps://ieeexplore.ieee.org/document/9099604
DOI10.1109/TOH.2020.2996748

Disordered protein-graphene oxide co-assembly and supramolecular biofabrication of functional fluidic devices

TitleDisordered protein-graphene oxide co-assembly and supramolecular biofabrication of functional fluidic devices
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2020
AuthorsWu, Y, Okesola, B, Xu, J, Korotkin, I, Berardo, A, Corridori, I, Di Brocchetti, F, Kanczler, J, Feng, J, Li, W, Shi, Y, Farafonov, V, Wang, Y, Thompson, R, Tiritici, MM, Nerukh, D, Karabasov, S, Oreffo, ROC, Rodriguez-Cabello, JC, Vozzi, G, Azevedo, H, Pugno, NM, Wang, W, Mata, A
JournalNature communications
Volume11
Pagination1–12
Date Published03/2020
URLhttps://www.nature.com/articles/s41467-020-14716-z
DOI10.1038/s41467-020-14716-z

On the motion/stiffness decoupling property of articulated soft robots with application to model-free torque iterative learning control

TitleOn the motion/stiffness decoupling property of articulated soft robots with application to model-free torque iterative learning control
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2020
AuthorsMengacci, R, Angelini, F, Catalano, MG, Grioli, G, Bicchi, A, Garabini, M
JournalThe International Journal of Robotics Research
Date Published08/2020
URLhttps://journals.sagepub.com/doi/10.1177/0278364920943275
DOI10.1177%2F0278364920943275

Exploring augmented grasping capabilities in a multi-synergistic soft bionic hand

TitleExploring augmented grasping capabilities in a multi-synergistic soft bionic hand
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2020
AuthorsPiazza, C, Simon, AM, Turner, KL, Miller, LA, Catalano, MG, Bicchi, A, Hargrove, L
JournalJournal of NeuroEngineering and Rehabilitation
Volume17
Start Page116
URLhttps://jneuroengrehab.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12984-020-00741-y#article-info
DOI10.1186/s12984-020-00741-y

Exploring the Role of Palm Concavity and Adaptability in Soft Synergistic Robotic Hands

TitleExploring the Role of Palm Concavity and Adaptability in Soft Synergistic Robotic Hands
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2020
AuthorsCapsi-Morales, P, Grioli, G, Piazza, C, Bicchi, A, Catalano, MG
Journal IEEE Robotics and Automation Letters
Volume5
Start Page4703
Issue3
Pagination4703 - 4710
Date Published17 June 2020
ISSN 2377-3766
KeywordsEllipsoids, Grasping, Indexes, Kinematics, Robots, Shape, Thumb
Abstract

Robotic hand engineers usually focus on finger capabilities, often disregarding the palm contribution. Inspired by human anatomy, this paper explores the advantages of including a flexible concave palm into the design of a robotic hand actuated by soft synergies. We analyse how the inclusion of an articulated palm improves finger workspace and manipulability. We propose a mechanical design of a modular palm with two elastic rolling-contact palmar joints, that can be integrated on the Pisa/IIT SoftHand, without introducing additional motors. With this prototype, we evaluate experimentally the grasping capabilities of a robotic palm. We compare its performance to that of the same robotic hand with the palm fixed, and to that of a human hand. To assess the effective grasp quality achieved by the three systems, we measure the contact area using paint-transfer patterns in different grasping actions. Preliminary grasping experiments show a closer resemblance of the soft-palm robotic hand to the human hand. Results evidence a higher adaptive capability and a larger involvement of all fingers in grasping.

URLhttps://ieeexplore.ieee.org/document/9119822?source=authoralert
DOI10.1109/LRA.2020.3003257

Exploring Stiffness Modulation in Prosthetic Hands and Its Perceived Function in Manipulation and Social Interaction.

TitleExploring Stiffness Modulation in Prosthetic Hands and Its Perceived Function in Manipulation and Social Interaction.
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2020
AuthorsCapsi-Morales, P, Piazza, C, Catalano, MG, Bicchi, A, Grioli, G
JournalFrontiers in Neurorobotics
Volume14
Issue33
Date Published06/2020
Keywordshuman-robot social interaction, impedance control, prosthetics, Soft robotics, task adaptability
Abstract

To physically interact with a rich variety of environments and to match situation-dependent requirements, humans adapt both the force and stiffness of their limbs. Reflecting this behavior in prostheses may promote a more natural and intuitive control and, consequently, improve prostheses acceptance in everyday life. This pilot study proposes a method to control a prosthetic robot hand and its impedance, and explores the utility of variable stiffness when performing activities of daily living and physical social interactions. The proposed method is capable of a simultaneous and proportional decoding of position and stiffness intentions from two surface electro-myographic sensors placed over a pair of antagonistic muscles. The feasibility of our approach is validated and compared to existing control modalities in a preliminary study involving one prosthesis user. The algorithm is implemented in a soft under-actuated prosthetic hand (SoftHand Pro). Then, we evaluate the usability of the proposed approach while executing a variety of tasks. Among these tasks, the user interacts with other 12 able-bodied subjects, whose experiences were also assessed. Several statistically significant aspects from the System Usability Scale indicate user's preference of variable stiffness control over low or high constant stiffness due to its reactivity and adaptability. Feedback reported by able-bodied subjects reveal a general tendency to favor soft interaction, i.e., low stiffness, which is perceived more human-like and comfortable. These combined results suggest the use of variable stiffness as a viable compromise between firm control and safe interaction which is worth investigating further.

URLhttps://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fnbot.2020.00033/full?&utm_source=Email_to_authors_&utm_medium=Email&utm_content=T1_11.5e1_author&utm_campaign=Email_publication&field=&journalName=Frontiers_in_Neurorobotics&id=503842
DOI10.3389/fnbot.2020.00033
Short TitleExploring Stiffness Modulation in Prosthetic Hand

A Novel Soft Robotic Supernumerary Hand for Severely Affected Stroke Patients

TitleA Novel Soft Robotic Supernumerary Hand for Severely Affected Stroke Patients
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2020
AuthorsCiullo, AS, Veerbeek, JM, Temperli, E, Luft, ARL, Tonis, F, Haarman, C, A. Ajoudani, Catalano, MG, Held, J, Bicchi, A
JournalIEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering
Volume28
Start Page1168
Issue5
Date Published31/03/2020
URLhttps://ieeexplore.ieee.org/document/9051797/authors#authors
DOI10.1109/TNSRE.2020.2984717

Assessing Autonomic function from electrodermal Activity and Heart Rate Variability During cold-pressor test and emotional challenge

TitleAssessing Autonomic function from electrodermal Activity and Heart Rate Variability During cold-pressor test and emotional challenge
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2020
AuthorsGhiasi, S, Greco, A, Barbieri, R, Scilingo, EP, Valenza, G
JournalScientific Reports
Volume10
Pagination1–13
Date Published03/2020
URLhttps://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-020-62225-2
DOI10.1038/s41598-020-62225-2

Uncovering complex central autonomic networks at rest: a functional magnetic resonance imaging study on complex cardiovascular oscillations

TitleUncovering complex central autonomic networks at rest: a functional magnetic resonance imaging study on complex cardiovascular oscillations
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2020
AuthorsValenza, G, Passamonti, L, Duggento, A, Toschi, N, Barbieri, R
JournalJournal of the Royal Society Interface
Volume17
Pagination20190878
Date Published03/2020
URLhttps://royalsocietypublishing.org/doi/full/10.1098/rsif.2019.0878
DOI10.1098/rsif.2019.0878

Quantifying the lagged Poincaré plot geometry of ultrashort heart rate variability series: automatic recognition of odor hedonic tone

TitleQuantifying the lagged Poincaré plot geometry of ultrashort heart rate variability series: automatic recognition of odor hedonic tone
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2020
AuthorsNardelli, M, Valenza, G, Greco, A, Lanatà, A, Scilingo, EP, Bailon, R
JournalMedical & Biological Engineering & Computing
Pagination1–14
Date Published03/2020
URLhttps://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11517-019-02095-7
DOI10.1007/s11517-019-02095-7

The central autonomic network at rest: Uncovering functional MRI correlates of time-varying autonomic outflow

TitleThe central autonomic network at rest: Uncovering functional MRI correlates of time-varying autonomic outflow
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2019
AuthorsValenza, G, Sclocco, R, Duggento, A, Passamonti, L, Napadow, V, Barbieri, R, Toschi, N
JournalNeuroimage
Volume197
Pagination383–390
Date Published08/2019
URLhttps://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S1053811919303672
DOI10.1016/j.neuroimage.2019.04.075

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