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Towards a Haptic Black Box: Magnetorheological fluid based display for softness and shape discrimination

TitleTowards a Haptic Black Box: Magnetorheological fluid based display for softness and shape discrimination
Publication TypeConference Paper
Year of Publication2003
Conference NameProc. IEEE Int. Conf. on Robotics and Automation
Pagination2412-2417
Date PublishedMay
Publication Languageeng
AuthorsScilingo, EP, Sgambelluri, N, De Rossi, D, Bicchi, A
Conference LocationTaipei, Taiwan
KeywordsHaptics
Abstract

In this paper we propose an innovative prototype of a haptic display for whole-hand immersive exploration. We envision a new concept of haptic display, the Haptic Black Box concept, which can be imagined as a box where the operator can poke his/her bare hand, and interact with the virtual object by freely moving the hand without mechanical constraints. In this way sensory receptors on the whole operator's hand would be excited, rather than restricting to just one or few fingertips or phalanges. To progress towards such a challenging goal, magnetorheological (MR) fluids represent a very interesting technology. These fluids are composed of micron-sized, magnetizable particles immersed in a synthetic oil. Exposure to an external magnetic field induces in the fluid a change in rheological behaviour turning it into a near-solid in few milliseconds. By removing the magnetic field, the fluid quickly returns to its liquid state. We briefly report on the design of this device, describe psychophysical experiments to assess performance for softness and shape exploration, and report on the experimental results.

Wearable Sensory-Motor Orthoses for Tele-Rehabilitation

TitleWearable Sensory-Motor Orthoses for Tele-Rehabilitation
Publication TypeConference Paper
Year of Publication2003
Conference Name25th Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
Pagination3724-3727
Date PublishedSeptember
Publication Languageeng
AuthorsTognetti, A, Carpi, F, Lorussi, F, Mazzoldi, A, Orsini, P, Scilingo, EP, Tesconi, M, De Rossi, D
Conference LocationCancun,Mexico
KeywordsBioengineering

Stabilization of a class of discrete-time hybrid automata

TitleStabilization of a class of discrete-time hybrid automata
Publication TypeConference Paper
Year of Publication2003
Conference NameProc. IEEE Int. Conf. on Decision and Control
Pagination1147-1152
Publication Languageeng
AuthorsZoncu, M, Balluchi, A, Vincentelli, SA, Bicchi, A
KeywordsEmbedded Control, Robotics
Abstract

In this paper, the problem of stabilizing linear discrete time hybrid automata is considered. A synthesis methodology is obtained by extending to hybrid systems the stabilization techniques based on stable convex combinations, originally developed for switching systems. An algorithm to explore the candidate stabilizing controller actions is proposed and an application to an automotive engine control problem is described.

Haptic Illusions Induced by Tactile Flow

TitleHaptic Illusions Induced by Tactile Flow
Publication TypeConference Paper
Year of Publication2003
Conference NameEuroHaptics Conference
Pagination2412-2417
Publication Languageeng
AuthorsBicchi, A, Dente, D, Scilingo, EP
KeywordsHaptics
Abstract

In this paper we report on a set of experiments involving perceptual illusions elicited by dynamic tactile stimulation of fingertips. These misperceptions are akin to some well studied optical illusions, which have been given an explanation in terms of the mechanisms of optic flow perception. We hypothesize that a similar perceptual mechanism exists for tactile flow, which is related to how humans perceive relative motion and pressure between the fingertips and objects in contact. We present a computational model of tactile flow, and discuss how it relates to accepted models of the neurophyisiology of touch. A particularly interesting phenomenon observed under some experimental circumstances, consisting of an incoherent tactile perception generating what we call a tactile vertigo, can be explained in terms of this model. The proposed tactile flow model also explains other phenomena observed in the past (namely, the Contact Area Spread Rate effect), and is of importance in designing simpler, more effective devices for artificial haptic sensing and displays.

Encoding steering control with symbols

TitleEncoding steering control with symbols
Publication TypeConference Paper
Year of Publication2003
Conference NameProc. IEEE Int. Conf. on Decision and Control
Pagination3343-3348
Publication Languageeng
AuthorsBicchi, A, Marigo, A, Piccoli, B
KeywordsEmbedded Control, Robotics
Abstract

In this paper, we consider the problem of steering complex dynamical systems among equilibria in their state space in efficient ways. Efficiency is considered as the possibility of compactly representing the (typically very large, or infinite) set of reachable equilibria and quickly computing plans to move among them. To this purpose, we consider the possibility of building lattice structures by purposefully introducing quantization of inputs. We consider different ways in which control actions can be encoded in a finite or numerable set of symbols, review different applications where symbolic encoding of control actions can be employed with success, and provide a unified framework in which to study the many different possible manifestations of the idea.

Wearable Sensing Garment For Posture Detection, Rehabilitation And Tele-Medicine

TitleWearable Sensing Garment For Posture Detection, Rehabilitation And Tele-Medicine
Publication TypeConference Paper
Year of Publication2003
Conference Name4th International IEEE EMBS Special Topic Conference on Information Technology Applications in Biomedicine
Pagination287-290
Date PublishedApril
Publication Languageeng
AuthorsLorussi, F, Scilingo, EP, Tesconi, M, Tognetti, A, De Rossi, D
Conference LocationBirmingham,UK
KeywordsBioengineering

From nominal to robust planning: The plate-ball manipulation system

TitleFrom nominal to robust planning: The plate-ball manipulation system
Publication TypeConference Paper
Year of Publication2003
Conference NameProc. IEEE Int. Conf. on Robotics and Automation
Pagination3175-3180
Date PublishedMay
Publication Languageeng
AuthorsOriolo, G, Vendittelli, M, Marigo, A, Bicchi, A
Conference LocationTaipei, Taiwan
KeywordsEmbedded Control, Robotics
Abstract

Robotic manipulation by rolling contacts is an appealing method for achieving dexterity with relatively simple hardware. While there exist techniques for planning motions of rigid bodies in rolling contact under nominal conditions, an inescapable challenge is the design of robust controllers of provable performance in the presence of model perturbations. As a preliminary step in this direction, we present in this paper an iterative robust planner of arbitrary accuracy for the plate-ball manipulation system subject to perturbations on the sphere radius. The basic tool is an exact geometric planner for the nominal system, whose repeated application guarantees the desired robustness property on the basis of the Iterative Steering paradigm. Simulation results under perturbed conditions show the effectiveness of the method.

Quality of service control in soft real-time applications

TitleQuality of service control in soft real-time applications
Publication TypeConference Paper
Year of Publication2003
Conference NameProc. IEEE Int. Conf. on Decision and Control
Pagination664-669
Publication Languageeng
AuthorsPalopoli, L, Cucinotta, T, Bicchi, A
KeywordsEmbedded Control, Robotics
Abstract

In this paper we present results obtained in the context of Quality of Service (QoS) control for soft real-time applications. The discussion addresses the issue of dynamically adjusting the bandwidth for a set of periodic tasks, when a reservation-based (RB) CPU scheduling policy is used. RB techniques are particularly suitable for this kind of applications since they allow an accurate mathematical modelling of the dynamic evolution of the QoS experienced by tasks. Based on this model, a control policy guaranteeing specified QoS levels for different tasks is illustrated, along with necessary and sufficient conditions for its existence. Moreover, the problem of steering a task QoS back into its nominal level is tackled, in response to deviations due to temporary overload conditions. Simulation results are reported, for the purpose of validating the approach.

Haptic Displays Based on Magnetorheological Fluids: Design, Realization and Psychophysical Validation

TitleHaptic Displays Based on Magnetorheological Fluids: Design, Realization and Psychophysical Validation
Publication TypeConference Paper
Year of Publication2003
Conference NameProc. 11th Symp. on Haptic Interfaces for Virtual Environment and Teleoperator Systems
Pagination10–15
Publication Languageeng
AuthorsScilingo, EP, Sgambelluri, N, De Rossi, D, Bicchi, A
KeywordsHaptics
Abstract

In this paper we explore the possibility of using magnetorheological (MR) fluids in haptic interfaces, exploiting their property of changing the rheological behaviour by tuning an external magnetic field. In particular, we propose two different prototypes of haptic display, for pinch grasp and for whole-hand immersive exploration. We briefly report on the design of these devices, describe few psychophysical experiments to assess their performance, and report on the experimental results. Such investigation is rather encouraging, and provides reliable cues as to how MR fluid based devices can be designed for haptic display applications.

Variable Stiffness Actuators for Fast and Safe Motion Control

TitleVariable Stiffness Actuators for Fast and Safe Motion Control
Publication TypeBook Chapter
Year of Publication2003
AuthorsBicchi, A, Tonietti, G, Bavaro, M, Piccigallo, M
EditorSiciliano, B, Khatib, O, Groen, F
Book TitleProceedings of the International Symposium on Robotics Research
Series TitleSpringer Tracts in Advanced Robotics (STAR)
PublisherSpringer Verlag
KeywordsRobotics
Abstract

In this paper we propose Variable Stiffness actuation as a viable mechanical/control co-design approach for guaranteeing control performance for robot arms that are inherently safe to humans in their environment. A new actuator under development in our Lab is then proposed, which incorporate the possibility to vary transmission stiffness during motion execution, thus allowing substantial motion speed-up while maintaining low injury risk levels.

Stabilization of LTI Systems with Quantized State-Quantized Input Static Feedback

TitleStabilization of LTI Systems with Quantized State-Quantized Input Static Feedback
Publication TypeBook Chapter
Year of Publication2003
AuthorsPicasso, B, Bicchi, A
EditorPnueli, A, Maler, O
Book TitleHybrid Systems: Computation and Control
Series TitleLecture Notes in Computer Science
VolumeLNCS 2623
Pagination405-416
PublisherSpringer-Verlag
CityHeidelberg, Germany
KeywordsEmbedded Control, Robotics
Abstract

This paper is concerned with the stabilization problem for discrete-time linear systems subject to a uniform quantization of the control set and to a regular state quantization, both fixed a priori. As it is well known, for quantized systems only weak (practical) stability properties can be achieved. Therefore, we focus on the existence and construction of quantized controllers (mapping a quantized state into a quantized input set) capable of steering a system to within invariant neighbourhoods of the equilibrium. Such analysis is helpful because it allows to decide a priori whether adesired control objective can be achieved by using a \textit{given} technology (actuators, sensors, communication and computational means).

Receding-Horizon Control of LTI Systems with Quantized Inputs

TitleReceding-Horizon Control of LTI Systems with Quantized Inputs
Publication TypeBook Chapter
Year of Publication2003
AuthorsPicasso, B, Pancanti, S, Bemporad, A, Bicchi, A
EditorEngell, G, Zaytoon,
Book TitleAnalysis and Design of Hybrid Systems 2003
Pagination259-264
PublisherElsevier
KeywordsEmbedded Control, Robotics
Abstract

This paper deals with the stabilization problem for a particular class of hybrid systems, namely discrete-time linear systems subject to a uniform (a priori fixed) quantization of the control set. Results of our previous work on the subject provided a description of minimal (in a specific sense) invariant sets that could be rendered maximally attractive under any quantized feedback strategy. In this paper, we consider the design of stabilizing laws that optimize a given cost index on the state and input evolution on a finite, receding horizon. Application of Model Predictive Control techniques for the solution of similar hybrid control problems through Mixed Logical Dynamical reformulations can provide a stabilizing control law, provided that the feasibility hypotheses are met. In this paper, we discuss precisely what are the shortest horizon length and the minimal invariant terminal set for which it can be guaranteed a stabilizing MPC scheme. The final paper will provide an example and simulations of the application of the control scheme to a practical quantized control problem.

Necessary and Sufficient Conditions for Robust Perfect Tracking under Variable Structure Control

TitleNecessary and Sufficient Conditions for Robust Perfect Tracking under Variable Structure Control
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2003
AuthorsBalluchi, A, Bicchi, A
JournalInternational Journal of Robust and Nonlinear Control
Volume13
Issue2
Pagination141-151
Date Published02/2003
KeywordsEmbedded Control, Robotics
Abstract

The tracking control of linear MIMO systems with structured uncertainty is considered. A necessary and sufficient condition for robust asymptotic tracking employing variable structure techniques in the presence of multiplicative uncertainty is derived. The constructive proof of the theorem provides an explicit formula for controller synthesis.