Summary This paper deals with the application of model predictive control (MPC) to optimize power flows in a network of interconnected microgrids (MGs). More specifically, a distributed MPC (DMPC) approach is used to compute for each MG how much active power should be exchanged with other MGs and with the outer power grid. Due to the presence of coupled variables, the DMPC approach must be used in a suitable way to guarantee the feasibility of the consensus procedure among the MGs. For this purpose, we adopt a tailored dual decomposition method that allows us to reach a feasible solution while guaranteeing the privacy of single MGs (ie, without having to share private information like the amount of generated energy or locally consumed energy). Simulation results demonstrate the features of the proposed cooperative control strategy and the obtained benefits with respect to other classical centralized control methods.

10adistributed systems10adual decomposition10amicrogrids10amodel predictive control1 aRazzanelli, M.1 aCrisostomi, E1 aPallottino, L.1 aPannocchia, G. uhttps://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1002/oca.250400604nas a2200145 4500008004100000245009800041210006900139260001200208490003700220100001800257700001900275700001100294700001500305856013800320 2019 eng d00aExact Task Execution in Highly Under-Actuated Soft Limbs: An Operational Space Based Approach0 aExact Task Execution in Highly UnderActuated Soft Limbs An Opera c04/20190 vVolume: 4 , Issue: 3 , July 20191 aDella Santina1 aPallottino, L.1 aRus, D1 aBicchi, A. uhttp://www.centropiaggio.unipi.it/publications/exact-task-execution-highly-under-actuated-soft-limbs-operational-space-based-approach00643nas a2200181 4500008004100000245008200041210006900123100001700192700001600209700001400225700001700239700001400256700001700270700001700287700001500304700001900319856012300338 2019 eng d00aTowards the Design of Robotic Drivers for Full-Scale Self-Driving Racing Cars0 aTowards the Design of Robotic Drivers for FullScale SelfDriving 1 aCaporale, D.1 aSettimi, A.1 aMassa, F.1 aAmerotti, F.1 aCorti, A.1 aFagiolini, A1 aGuiggiani, M1 aBicchi, A.1 aPallottino, L. uhttp://www.centropiaggio.unipi.it/publications/towards-design-robotic-drivers-full-scale-self-driving-racing-cars.html00925nas a2200265 4500008004100000245010800041210006900149260000900218300001400227490000600241653001500247653004200262653003000304653001000334653002400344653002400368653002100392653002300413653001900436100001500455700001900470700001900489700001500508856013600523 2018 eng d00aAerial Co-Manipulation With Cables: The Role of Internal Force for Equilibria, Stability, and Passivity0 aAerial CoManipulation With Cables The Role of Internal Force for cJuly a2577-25830 v310aAdmittance10aAerial systems: mechanics and control10adistributed robot systems10aForce10amobile manipulation10amulti-robot systems10aRobot kinematics10aStability criteria10aTransportation1 aTognon, M.1 aGabellieri, C.1 aPallottino, L.1 aFranchi, A uhttp://www.centropiaggio.unipi.it/publications/aerial-co-manipulation-cables-role-internal-force-equilibria-stability-and-passivity00649nas a2200133 4500008003900000245008400039210006900123300001000192490013300202100001700335700001400352700001900366856013000385 2018 d00aAutonomous 3D exploration of large areas: A cooperative frontier-based approach0 aAutonomous 3D exploration of large areas A cooperative frontierb a18-390 v10756 LNCS Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in 1 aMannucci, A.1 aNardi, S.1 aPallottino, L. uhttp://www.centropiaggio.unipi.it/publications/autonomous-3d-exploration-large-areas-cooperative-frontier-based-approach.html00648nas a2200133 4500008003900000245008400039210006900123300001200192490013300204100001800337700001900355700001400374856012600388 2018 d00aDesign of an indoor autonomous robot navigation system for unknown environments0 aDesign of an indoor autonomous robot navigation system for unkno a153-1690 v10756 LNCS Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in 1 aSilvestri, L.1 aPallottino, L.1 aNardi, S. uhttp://www.centropiaggio.unipi.it/publications/design-indoor-autonomous-robot-navigation-system-unknown-environments.html00819nas a2200253 4500008004100000022001400041245007700055210006900132260001200201300001400213490000600227653002200233653001800255653003000273653001600303653001000319653001400329653002100343653002600364100001400390700001900404700001900423856012300442 2018 eng d a2377-376600aA Game Theoretic Robotic Team Coordination Protocol For Intruder Herding0 aGame Theoretic Robotic Team Coordination Protocol For Intruder H c10/2018 a4124-41310 v310aautonomous agents10aCost function10adistributed robot systems10agame theory10aGames10aProtocols10aRobot kinematics10aRobot sensing systems1 aNardi, S.1 aMazzitelli, F.1 aPallottino, L. uhttp://www.centropiaggio.unipi.it/publications/game-theoretic-robotic-team-coordination-protocol-intruder-herding.html01088nas a2200373 4500008004100000022001400041245007100055210006900126300000800195653001400203653001600217653001300233653002200246653002600268653001800294100001700312700001500329700001700344700001600361700001700377700001700394700001700411700001600428700001700444700001900461700001500480700001900495700002000514700001800534700001500552700001700567700002000584856011000604 2018 eng d a1070-993200aHumanoids at Work: The WALK-MAN Robot in a Postearthquake Scenario0 aHumanoids at Work The WALKMAN Robot in a Postearthquake Scenario a1-110aBuildings10aEarthquakes10aHardware10aLegged locomotion10aRobot sensing systems10aTask analysis1 aNegrello, F.1 aSettimi, A1 aCaporale, D.1 aLentini, G.1 aPoggiani, M.1 aKanoulas, D.1 aMuratore, L.1 aLuberto, E.1 aSantaera, G.1 aCiarleglio, L.1 aErmini, L.1 aPallottino, L.1 aCaldwell, D. G.1 aTsagarakis, N1 aBicchi, A.1 aGarabini, M.1 aCatalano, M. G. uhttp://www.centropiaggio.unipi.it/publications/humanoids-work-walk-man-robot-postearthquake-scenario.html00696nas a2200217 4500008003900000245006700039210006400106260002500170300000800195100001700203700001700220700001900237700001500256700001500271700001700286700001400303700001600317700001400333700001800347856011300365 2018 d00aA Planning and Control System for Self-Driving Racing Vehicles0 aPlanning and Control System for SelfDriving Racing Vehicles aPalermo, ItalycSept a1-61 aCaporale, D.1 aFagiolini, A1 aPallottino, L.1 aSettimi, A1 aBiondo, A.1 aAmerotti, F.1 aMassa, F.1 aDe Caro, S.1 aCorti, A.1 aVenturini, L. uhttp://www.centropiaggio.unipi.it/publications/planning-and-control-system-self-driving-racing-vehicles.html00557nas a2200157 4500008003900000020002200039245005800061210005500119260004400174300001100218100001900229700001500248700001900263700001500282856010200297 2018 d a978-3-030-00533-700aA Study on Force-Based Collaboration in Flying Swarms0 aStudy on ForceBased Collaboration in Flying Swarms aChambSpringer International Publishing a3–151 aGabellieri, C.1 aTognon, M.1 aPallottino, L.1 aFranchi, A uhttp://www.centropiaggio.unipi.it/publications/study-force-based-collaboration-flying-swarms.html01162nas a2200457 4500008004100000245003100041210003000072260001300102300001400115490000800129100002300137700001700160700001700177700001300194700002000207700001600227700001600243700002000259700001600279700001700295700001600312700001900328700001500347700001400362700001500376700001700391700001700408700001900425700001500444700001600459700001600475700001500491700001900506700001900525700001400544700001100558700001700569700002000586700001500606856008300621 2018 eng d00aWALK-MAN Humanoid Platform0 aWALKMAN Humanoid Platform bSpringer a495–5480 v1211 aTsagarakis, N., G.1 aNegrello, F.1 aGarabini, M.1 aChoi, W.1 aBaccelliere, L.1 aLoc, V., G.1 aNoorden, J.1 aCatalano, M. G.1 aFerrati, M.1 aMuratore, L.1 aKryczka, P.1 aHoffman, Mingo1 aSettimi, A1 aRocchi, A1 aMargan, A.1 aCordasco, S.1 aKanoulas, D.1 aCardellino, A.1 aNatale, L.1 aDallali, H.1 aMalzahn, J.1 aKashiri, N1 aVarricchio, V.1 aPallottino, L.1 aPavan, C.1 aLee, J1 aAjoudani, A.1 aCaldwell, D. G.1 aBicchi, A. uhttp://www.centropiaggio.unipi.it/publications/walk-man-humanoid-platform.html01303nas a2200169 4500008003900000245008100039210006900120260004000189520068600229653001300915100001400928700001500942700001600957700001900973700001300992856012801005 2017 d00aDistributed Task-priority Based Control in Area Coverage & Adaptive Sampling0 aDistributed Taskpriority Based Control in Area Coverage Adaptive aAberdeen, Scotland, June 2017bIEEE3 aThe paper presents the first simulative results and algorithmic developments of the task-priority based control applied to a distributed sampling network in an area coverage or adaptive sampling mission scenario. The proposed approach allowing the fulfilment of a chain of tasks with decreasing priority each of which directly related to both operability and safety aspects of the entire mission. The task-priority control is presented both in the centralized and decentralized implementations showing a comparison of performance. Finally simulations of the area coverage mission scenario are provided showing the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

10aRobotics1 aFabbri, T1 aSimetti, E1 aCasalino, G1 aPallottino, L.1 aCaiti, A uhttp://www.centropiaggio.unipi.it/publications/distributed-task-priority-based-control-area-coverage-adaptive-sampling.html02581nas a2200181 4500008004100000245009500041210006900136260001200205300000900217520181500226653001302041100001802054700001602072700001902088700001702107700001502124856026002139 2017 eng d00aOn the Minimum-Time Control Problem for Differential Drive Robots with Bearing Constraints0 aMinimumTime Control Problem for Differential Drive Robots with B c04/2017 a1-273 aThis paper presents a study of analysis of minimum-time trajectories for a differential drive robot equipped with a fixed and limited field-of-view camera, which must keep a given landmark in view during maneuvers. Previous works have considered the same physical problem and provided a complete analysis/synthesis for the problem of determining the shortest paths. The main difference in the two cost functions (length vs. time) lays on the rotation on the spot. Indeed, this maneuver has zero cost in terms of length and hence leads to a 2D shortest path synthesis. On the other hand, in case of minimum time, the synthesis depends also on the orientations of the vehicle. In other words, the not zero cost of the rotation on the spot maneuvers leads to a 3D minimum-time synthesis. Moreover, the shortest paths have been obtained by exploiting the geometric properties of the extremal arcs, i.e., straight lines, rotations on the spot, logarithmic spirals and involute of circles. Conversely, in terms of time, even if the extremal arcs of the minimum-time control problem are exactly the same, the geometric properties of these arcs change, leading to a completely different analysis and characterization of optimal paths. In this paper, after proving the existence of optimal trajectories and showing the extremal arcs of the problem at hand, we provide the control laws that steer the vehicle along these arcs and the time-cost along each of them. Moreover, this being a crucial step toward numerical implementation, optimal trajectories are proved to be characterized by a finite number of switching points between different extremal arcs, i.e., the concatenations of extremal arcs with infinitely many junction times are shown to violate the optimality conditions.

10aRobotics1 aCristofaro, A1 aSalaris, P.1 aPallottino, L.1 aGiannoni, F.1 aBicchi, A. uhttp://download.springer.com/static/pdf/641/art%253A10.1007%252Fs10957-017-1110-7.pdf?originUrl=http%3A%2F%2Flink.springer.com%2Farticle%2F10.1007%2Fs10957-017-1110-7&token2=exp=1492507070~acl=%2Fstatic%2Fpdf%2F641%2Fart%25253A10.1007%25252Fs10957-017-11102171nas a2200157 4500008003900000245008200039210006900121260000900190300001600199520168700215653001301902100001501915700001901930700001501949856004901964 2017 d00aNoninteracting Constrained Motion Planning and Control for Robot Manipulators0 aNoninteracting Constrained Motion Planning and Control for Robot bIEEE a4038 - 40433 aIn this paper we present a novel geometric approach

to motion planning for constrained robot systems.

This problem is notoriously hard, as classical sampling-based

methods do not easily apply when motion is constrained in

a zero-measure submanifold of the configuration space. Based

on results on the functional controllability theory of dynamical

systems, we obtain a description of the complementary spaces

where rigid body motions can occur, and where interaction

forces can be generated, respectively. Once this geometric setting

is established, the motion planning problem can be greatly

simplified. Indeed, we can relax the geometric constraint, i.e.,

replace the lower–dimensional constraint manifold with a fulldimensional

boundary layer. This in turn allows us to plan

motion using state-of-the-art methods, such as RRT*, on points

within the boundary layer, which can be efficiently sampled. On

the other hand, the same geometric approach enables the design

of a completely decoupled control scheme for interaction forces,

so that they can be regulated to zero (or any other desired

value) without interacting with the motion plan execution.

A distinguishing feature of our method is that it does not

use projection of sampled points on the constraint manifold,

thus largely saving in computational time, and guaranteeing

accurate execution of the motion plan. An explanatory example

is presented, along with an experimental implementation of the

method on a bimanual manipulation workstation.

In this work, we present WALK-MAN, a humanoid platform that has been developed to operate in realistic unstructured environment, and demonstrate new skills including powerful manipulation, robust balanced locomotion, high-strength capabilities, and physical sturdiness. To enable these capabilities, WALK-MAN design and actuation are based on the most recent advancements of series elastic actuator drives with unique performance features that differentiate the robot from previous state-of-the-art compliant actuated robots. Physical interaction performance is benefited by both active and passive adaptation, thanks to WALK-MAN actuation that combines customized high-performance modules with tuned torque/velocity curves and transmission elasticity for high-speed adaptation response and motion reactions to disturbances. WALK-MAN design also includes innovative design optimization features that consider the selection of kinematic structure and the placement of the actuators with the body structure to maximize the robot performance. Physical robustness is ensured with the integration of elastic transmission, proprioceptive sensing, and control. The WALK-MAN hardware was designed and built in 11 months, and the prototype of the robot was ready four months before DARPA Robotics Challenge (DRC) Finals. The motion generation of WALK-MAN is based on the unified motion-generation framework of whole-body locomotion and manipulation (termed loco-manipulation). WALK-MAN is able to execute simple loco-manipulation behaviors synthesized by combining different primitives defining the behavior of the center of gravity, the motion of the hands, legs, and head, the body attitude and posture, and the constrained body parts such as joint limits and contacts. The motion-generation framework including the specific motion modules and software architecture is discussed in detail. A rich perception system allows the robot to perceive and generate 3D representations of the environment as well as detect contacts and sense physical interaction force and moments. The operator station that pilots use to control the robot provides a rich pilot interface with different control modes and a number of teleoperated or semiautonomous command features. The capability of the robot and the performance of the individual motion control and perception modules were validated during the DRC in which the robot was able to demonstrate exceptional physical resilience and execute some of the tasks during the competition.

10aRobotics1 aTsagarakis, N., G.1 aCaldwell, D. G.1 aNegrello, F.1 aChoi, W.1 aBaccelliere, L.1 aLoc, V., G.1 aNoorden, J.1 aMuratore, L.1 aMargan, A.1 aCardellino, A.1 aNatale, L.1 aHoffman, Mingo1 aDallali, H.1 aKashiri, N1 aMalzahn, J.1 aLee, J1 aKryczka, P.1 aKanoulas, D.1 aGarabini, M.1 aCatalano, M. G.1 aFerrati, M.1 aVarricchio, V.1 aPallottino, L.1 aPavan, C.1 aBicchi, A.1 aSettimi, A1 aRocchi, A1 aAjoudani, A. uhttp://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/rob.21702/epdf01788nas a2200193 4500008003900000245011800039210006900157260004400226300001400270490006900284520107100353653002101424653001301445100001901458700001701477700001501494700001901509856006601528 2016 d00aAPRICOT: Aerospace PRototypIng COntrol Toolbox. A Modeling and Simulation Environment for Aircraft Control Design0 aAPRICOT Aerospace PRototypIng COntrol Toolbox A Modeling and Sim aRome, Italy, June 15-16, 2016bSpringer a139 - 1570 v9991 of the book series Lecture Notes in Computer Science (LNCS)3 aA novel MATLAB/Simulink based modeling and simulation environment for the design and rapid prototyping of state-of-the-art aircraft control systems is proposed. The toolbox, named APRICOT, is able to simulate the longitudinal and laterodirectional dynamics of an aircraft separately, as well as the complete 6 degrees of freedom dynamics. All details of the dynamics can be easily customized in the toolbox, some examples are shown in the paper. Moreover, different aircraft models can be easily integrated. The main goal of APRICOT is to provide a simulation environment to test and validate different control laws with different aircraft models. Hence, the proposed toolbox has applicability both for educational purposes and control rapid prototyping. With respect to similar software packages, APRICOT is customizable in all its aspects, and has been released as open source software. An interface with Flightgear Simulator allows for online visualization of the flight. Examples of control design with simulation experiments are reported and commented.

10aEmbedded Control10aRobotics1 aFerrarelli, A.1 aCaporale, D.1 aSettimi, A1 aPallottino, L. uhttp://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-319-47605-6_1101293nas a2200181 4500008003900000245011100039210006900150260004400219300001400263490006900277520062400346100001400970700001400984700001500998700001901013700001301032856006601045 2016 d00aAssessing the Potential of Autonomous Multi-agent Surveillance in Asset Protection from Underwater Threats0 aAssessing the Potential of Autonomous Multiagent Surveillance in aRome, Italy, June 15-16, 2016bSpringer a204 - 2130 v9991 of the book series Lecture Notes in Computer Science (LNCS)3 aA Serious Game (SG) system for the assessment of the potential of the multi-vehicle surveillance is presented. The SG system is applied to the problem of protection of strategic assets from underwater asymmetric threats. The SG platform integrates the active sonar performance evaluator able to estimate the real performance on the basis of the environmental conditions. The final goal is to provide new technology tools to realize a Decision Support System (DDS) to support the design phase of a naval unit. The SG system is developed in the framework of the ProDifCon project supported by the (DLTM) (Italy).

1 aFabbri, T1 aNardi, S.1 aIsgrò, L.1 aPallottino, L.1 aCaiti, A uhttp://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-319-47605-6_1701487nas a2200181 4500008004100000245007400041210006900115260001200184300001400196490000700210520093400217653002101151653001301172100001401185700001601199700001901215856007101234 2016 eng d00aControllability analysis of a pair of 3D Dubins vehicles in formation0 aControllability analysis of a pair of 3D Dubins vehicles in form c09/2016 a94 - 1050 v833 aIn this paper we consider the controllability problem for a system consisting of a pair of Dubins vehicles moving in a 3D space (i.e. pair of *3D–Dubins* vehicles) while maintaining constant distance. Necessary and sufficient conditions for the existence of a limited control effort to steer the system between any two configurations are provided. The proposed controllability analysis and the developed motion planning algorithm are a step toward the solution of planning problems for example in case the robots are physically constrained to a payload to be deployed. Moreover, results obtained in this paper are relevant in order to solve formation control problems for multiple robots as aerial or underwater vehicles, which move in 3D spaces. Simulation results highlight the sufficiency of the obtained conditions showing that even from critical configurations an admissible control can be determined.

This work proposes a game theoretic approach

to tackle the problem of multi-robot coordination

in critical scenarios where communication is

limited and the robots must accomplish different tasks

simultaneously. An important application falls in underwater

robotic framework where robots are used to

protect a ship against asymmetric threats guaranteeing

simultaneously the coverage of the area around the ship

and the tracking of a possible intruder. The problem is

modelled as a potential game for which novel learning

protocols are introduced. Indeed, a general extension

of pay-off based algorithms is herein proposed where

the main difference with state-of-the-art protocols is

that the trajectory optimization is considered instead

of single action optimization. Moreover, the proposed

T-algorithms, steer the robots toward Nash equilibria

that will be shown to correspond to the accomplishment

of different, possibly antagonistic, goals. Finally, performances

of the algorithms, under different scenarios,

have been evaluated in simulations.

Due to the increasing usage of service and industrial autonomous vehicles, a precise localisation is an essential component required in many applications, e.g. indoor robot navigation. In open outdoor environments, differential GPS systems can provide precise positioning information. However, there are many applications in which GPS cannot be used, such as indoor environments. In this work, we aim to increase robot autonomy providing a localisation system based on passive markers, that fuses three kinds of data through extended Kalman filters. With the use of low cost devices, the optical data are combined with other robots’ sensor signals, i.e. odometry and inertial measurement units (IMU) data, in order to obtain accurate localisation at higher tracking frequencies. The entire system has been developed fully integrated with the Robotic Operating System (ROS) and has been validated with real robots.

Several advanced control laws are available for

complex robotic systems such as humanoid robots and mobile

manipulators. Controls are usually developed for locomotion or

for manipulation purposes. Resulting motions are usually executed

sequentially and the potentiality of the robotic platform

is not fully exploited.

In this work we consider the problem of loco–manipulation

planning for a robot with given parametrized control laws

known as primitives. Such primitives, may have not been

designed to be executed simultaneously and by composing

them instability may easily arise. With the proposed approach,

primitives combination that guarantee stability of the system

are obtained resulting in complex whole–body behavior.

A formal definition of motion primitives is provided and a

random sampling approach on a manifold with limited dimension

is investigated. Probabilistic completeness and asymptotic

optimality are also proved. The proposed approach is tested

both on a mobile manipulator and on the humanoid robot

Walk-Man, performing loco–manipulation tasks.

The purpose of this work is to move a step toward the automation of industrial plants through full exploitation of autonomous robots. A planning algorithm is proposed to move different objects in desired configurations with heterogeneous robots such as manipulators, mobile robots and conveyor belts.

The proposed approach allows different objects to be handled by different robots simultaneously in an efficient way and avoiding collisions with the environment and self–collisions between robots. In particular, the integrated system will be capable of planning paths for a set of objects from various starting points in the environment (e.g. shelves) to their respective final destinations. The proposed approach unifies the active (e.g., grasping by a hand) and passive (e.g., holding by a table) steps involved in moving the objects in the environment by treating them as end–effectors with constraints and capabilities.

Time varying graphs will be introduced to model the problem for simultaneous handling of objects by different end–effectors.

Optimal exploration of such graphs will be used to determine paths for each object with time constraints. Results will be validated through simulations.

*NoStop* is an open source simulator dedicated to distributed and cooperative mobile robotics systems. It has been designed as a framework to design and test multi–agent collaborative algorithms in terms of performance and robustness. The particular application scenario of a team of autonomous guards that coordinate to protect an area from asymmetric threat is considered. *NoStop* system is an integrated tool able to both evaluate the coordination protocol performance and to design the team of guards involved in the asymmetric threat protection. Moreover, *NoStop* is designed to validate robustness of coordination protocol through the use of a remote pilot that control the intruder motion to escape from the guards that monitor the area and accomplish its mission. The project core is a simulation server with a dynamic engine and a synchronization facility. Different coordination protocol can be designed and easily integrated in *NoStop*. The framework is fully integrated with the Robot Operating System (ROS) and it is completed by a control station where the remote pilot moves the intruder following the guards evolution in a 3*D* viewer.

Compliance in robot design and control is often introduced to improve the robot performance in tasks where interaction with environment or human is required. However a rigorous method to choose the correct level of compliance is still not available. In this work we use robust optimization as a tool to select the optimal compliance value in a robotenvironment interaction scenario under uncertainties. We propose an approach that can be profitably applied on a variety of tasks, e.g.manipulation tasks or locomotion tasks. The aim is to minimize the forces of interaction considering model constraints and uncertainties. Numerical results show that: i) in case of perfect knowledge of the environment stiff robots behave better in terms of force minimization, ii) in case of uncertainties the optimal stiffness of the robot is lower than the previous case and optimal solutions provide a faster task accomplishment, iii) the optimal stiffness decreases as a function of the uncertainty measure. Experiments are carried out in a realistic set-up in case of bi-manual object handover.

10aRobotics1 aGasparri, G., M.1 aFabiani, F.1 aGarabini, M.1 aPallottino, L.1 aCatalano, M. G.1 aGrioli, G.1 aPersichini, R.1 aBicchi, A. uhttp://ieeexplore.ieee.org/document/7803381/01869nas a2200181 4500008004100000245004500041210004000086260001200126520140500138653001301543100001601556700001501572700001701587700002301604700001501627700001901642856002601661 2016 eng d00aThe Walk-Man Robot Software Architecture0 aWalkMan Robot Software Architecture c05/20163 aA software and control architecture for a humanoid robot is a complex and large project, which involves a team of developers/researchers to be coordinated and requires many hard design choices. If such project has to be done in a very limited time, i.e., less than 1 year, more constraints are added and concepts, such as modular design, code reusability, and API definition, need to be used as much as possible. In this work, we describe the software architecture developed for Walk-Man, a robot participant at the Darpa Robotics Challenge. The challenge required the robot to execute many different tasks, such as walking, driving a car, and manipulating objects. These tasks need to be solved by robotics specialists in their corresponding research field, such as humanoid walking, motion planning, or object manipulation. The proposed architecture was developed in 10 months, provided boilerplate code for most of the functionalities required to control a humanoid robot and allowed robotics researchers to produce their control modules for DRC tasks in a short time. Additional capabilities of the architecture include firmware and hardware management, mixing of different middlewares, unreliable network management, and operator control station GUI. All the source code related to the architecture and some control modules have been released as open source projects.

10aRobotics1 aFerrati, M.1 aSettimi, A1 aMuratore, L.1 aTsagarakis, N., G.1 aNatale, L.1 aPallottino, L. uhttp://bit.ly/2jAPke201295nas a2200169 4500008003900000020002200039245007900061210006900140260003400209520075400243653001300997100001401010700001801024700001501042700001901057856004901076 2015 d a978-1-4799-8736-800aCoordination of unmanned marine vehicles for asymmetric threats protection0 aCoordination of unmanned marine vehicles for asymmetric threats aMay 18-21, Genoa, ItalybIEEE3 aA coordination protocol for systems of unmanned marine vehicles is proposed for protection against asymmetric threats. The problem is first modelled in a game theoretic framework, as a potential game. Then an extension of existing learning algorithms is proposed to address the problem of tracking the possibly moving threat. The approach is evaluated in scenarios of different geometric complexity such as open sea, bay, and harbours. Performance of the approach is evaluated in terms of a security index that will allow us to obtain a tool for team sizing. The tool provides the minimum number of marine vehicles to be used in the system, given a desired security level to be guaranteed and the maximum threat velocity.

10aRobotics1 aNardi, S.1 aDella Santina1 aMeucci, D.1 aPallottino, L. uhttp://ieeexplore.ieee.org/document/7271413/02021nas a2200229 4500008004100000245008500041210006900126260001200195300001000207490001400217520132700231653002101558653001301579100001501592700001801607700002401625700002501649700001901674700001201693700001501705856007101720 2015 eng d00aDistributed motion misbehavior detection in teams of heterogeneous aerial robots0 aDistributed motion misbehavior detection in teams of heterogeneo c12/2015 a30-390 v74 part A3 aThis paper addresses the problem of detecting possible misbehavior in a group of autonomous mobile robots, which coexist in a shared environment and interact with each other and coordinate according to a set of common *interaction rules*. Such rules specify what actions each robot is allowed to perform in order to interact with the other members of the group. The rules are distributed, i.e., they can be evaluated only starting from the knowledge of the individual robot and the information the robot gathers from neighboring robots. We consider *misbehaving* those robots which, because of either spontaneous failures or malicious tampering, do not follow the rules and whose behavior thus deviates from the nominal assigned one. The main contribution of the paper is to provide a methodology to detect such misbehavior by observing the congruence of actual behavior with the assigned rules as applied to the actual state of the system. The presented methodology is based on a consensus protocol on the events observed by robots. The methodology is fully distributed in the sense that it can be performed by individual robots based only on the local available information, it has been theoretically proven and validated with experiments involving real aerial heterogeneous robots.

In this paper we study the minimum length paths covered by the center of a unicycle equipped with a limited Field–Of–View (FOV) camera, which must keep a given landmark in sight. Previous works on this subject have provided the optimal synthesis for the cases in which the FOV is only limited in the horizontal directions (i.e. left and right bounds) or in the vertical directions (i.e. upper and lower bounds). In this paper we show how to merge previous results and hence obtaining, for a realistic image plane modeled as a rectangle, a finite alphabet of extremal arcs and the overall synthesis. As shown, this objective can not be straightforwardly achieved from previous results but needs further analysis and developments. Moreover, there are initial configurations such that there exists no optimal path. Nonetheless, we are always able to provide an e–optimal path whose length approximates arbitrarily well any other shorter path. As final results, we provide a partition of the motion plane in regions such that the optimal or e–optimal path from each point in thatregion is univocally determined.

10aEmbedded Control10aRobotics1 aSalaris, P1 aCristofaro, A1 aPallottino, L. uhttp://www.centropiaggio.unipi.it/publications/epsilon-optimal-synthesis-unicycle-vehicles-limited-field-view-sensors.html01827nas a2200193 4500008004100000022001400041245008300055210007100138300001600209490000700225520116900232653002101401653001301422100001601435700001901451700001901470700001501489856012901504 2015 eng d a0018-928600aEpsilon–optimal synthesis for vehicles with vertically bounded Field-Of-View0 aEpsilon–optimal synthesis for vehicles with vertically bounded F a1204 - 12180 v603 aThis paper presents a contribution to the problem of obtaining an optimal synthesis for shortest paths for a unicycle guided by an on–board limited Field Of–View (FOV) sensor, which must keep a given landmark in sight. Previous works on this subject have provided an optimal synthesis for the case in which the FOV is limited in the horizontal directions (H– FOV, i.e. left and right boundaries). In this paper we study the complementary case in which the FOV is limited only in the vertical direction (V–FOV, i.e. upper and lower boundaries). With respect to the H–FOV case, the vertical limitation is all but a simple extension. Indeed, not only the geometry of extremal arcs is different, but also a more complex structure of the synthesis is revealed by analysis. We will indeed show that there exist initial configurations for which the optimal path does not exist. In such cases, we provide an e–optimal path whose length approximates arbitrarily well any other shorter path. Finally, we provide a partition of the motion plane in regions such that the optimal or e–optimal path from each point in that region is univocally determined.

10aEmbedded Control10aRobotics1 aSalaris, P.1 aCristofaro, A.1 aPallottino, L.1 aBicchi, A. uhttp://www.centropiaggio.unipi.it/publications/epsilon%E2%80%93optimal-synthesis-vehicles-vertically-bounded-field-view.html00609nas a2200157 4500008003900000245008500039210006900124260003600193300001600229653001300245100001500258700001600273700001900289700001500308856012800323 2015 d00aSample-Based Motion Planning for Robot Manipulators with Closed Kinematic Chains0 aSampleBased Motion Planning for Robot Manipulators with Closed K aSeattle, USA, 25 - 30 MaybIEEE a2522 - 252710aRobotics1 aBonilla, M1 aFarnioli, E1 aPallottino, L.1 aBicchi, A. uhttp://www.centropiaggio.unipi.it/publications/sample-based-motion-planning-robot-manipulators-closed-kinematic-chains.html00620nas a2200193 4500008003900000245005500039210005500094260006000149300001600209653001300225100001800238700001700256700001900273700001600292700002000308700001500328700001500343856006800358 2015 d00aVariable Stiffness Control for Oscillation Damping0 aVariable Stiffness Control for Oscillation Damping aHamburg, Germany, September 28 - October 02, 2015bIEEE a6543 - 655010aRobotics1 aGasparri, G M1 aGarabini, M.1 aPallottino, L.1 aMalagia, L.1 aCatalano, M. G.1 aGrioli, G.1 aBicchi, A. uhttp://ieeexplore.ieee.org/stamp/stamp.jsp?tp=&arnumber=735431200664nas a2200169 4500008003900000245007700039210006900116260003300185300001200218490005800230653002100288653001300309100001600322700001500338700001900353856012200372 2014 d00aASCARI: a component based simulator for distributed mobile robot systems0 aASCARI a component based simulator for distributed mobile robot aRome, 5-6 May 2014bSpringer a152-1630 v Lecture Notes in Computer Science, Volume 8906, 201410aEmbedded Control10aRobotics1 aFerrati, M.1 aSettimi, A1 aPallottino, L. uhttp://www.centropiaggio.unipi.it/publications/ascari-component-based-simulator-distributed-mobile-robot-systems.html02070nas a2200205 4500008003900000020002200039245009600061210006900157260004300226300001600269520139100285653002101676653001301697100001901710700001601729700001901745700001701764700001501781856006801796 2014 d a978-1-4799-7746-800aOn Time-Optimal Trajectories for Differential Drive Vehicles with Field-Of-View Constraints0 aTimeOptimal Trajectories for Differential Drive Vehicles with Fi aLos Angeles, USA, December 15-17bIEEE a2191 - 21973 aThis paper presents the first step toward the study of minimum time trajectories for a differential drive robot, which is equipped with a fixed and limited Field-Of-View (FOV) camera, towards a desired configuration while keeping a given landmark in sight during maneuvers. While several previous works have provided a complete synthesis of shortest paths in case of both nonholonomic and FOV constraints, to the best of our knowledge, this paper represents the first analysis of minimum time trajectories with the two constraints. After showing the extremals of the problem at hand, i.e. straight lines, rotations on the spot, logarithmic spirals and involute of circles, we provide the optimal control laws that steer the vehicle along the path and the cost in terms of time along each extremal. Moreover, we compare some concatenations of extremals in order to reduce the complexity of the problem toward the definition of a sufficient finite set of optimal maneuvers.

10aEmbedded Control10aRobotics1 aCristofaro, A.1 aSalaris, P.1 aPallottino, L.1 aGiannoni, F.1 aBicchi, A. uhttp://ieeexplore.ieee.org/stamp/stamp.jsp?tp=&arnumber=703972301949nas a2200157 4500008004100000245010900041210007100150260001200221300000800233520134400241653001301585100001501598700001701613700001901630856014201649 2013 eng d00aDistributed Multi–level Motion Planning for Autonomous Vehicles in Large Scale Industrial Environments0 aDistributed Multi–level Motion Planning for Autonomous Vehicles c09/2013 a1-83 aIn this paper we propose a distributed coordination algorithm for safe and efficient traffic management of heterogeneous robotic agents, moving within dynamic large scale industrial environments. The algorithm consists of a distributed resource–sharing protocol involving a re–planning strategy. Once every agent is assigned with a desired motion path, the algorithm ensures ordered traffic flows of agents, that avoid inter–robot collision and system deadlock (stalls). The algorithm allows multi–level representation of the environment, i.e. large or complex rooms may be seen as a unique resource with given capacity at convenience, which makes the approach appealing for complex industrial environments. Under a suitable condition on the maximum number of agents with respect to the capacity of the environment, we prove that the algorithm correctly allows mutual access to shared resources while avoiding deadlocks. The proposed solution requires no centralized mechanism, no shared memory or ground infrastructure support. Only a local inter–robot communication is required, i.e. every agent must communicate with a limited number of other spatially adjacent robots. We finally show the effectiveness of the proposed approach by simulations, with application to an industrial scenario.

10aRobotics1 aCancemi, L1 aFagiolini, A1 aPallottino, L. uhttp://www.centropiaggio.unipi.it/publications/distributed-multi%E2%80%93level-motion-planning-autonomous-vehicles-large-scale-industrial00550nas a2200169 4500008003900000245005400039210005400093260002000147300001600167653001300183100001400196700001800210700001600228700001900244700001500263856010200278 2013 d00aGlobal Path Planning for Competitive Robotic Cars0 aGlobal Path Planning for Competitive Robotic Cars aFlorence, Italy a4510 - 451610aRobotics1 aRizano, T1 aFontanelli, D1 aPalopoli, L1 aPallottino, L.1 aSalaris, P uhttp://www.centropiaggio.unipi.it/publications/global-path-planning-competitive-robotic-cars.html00621nas a2200157 4500008003900000245010200039210006900141260002000210300001600230653001300246100001500259700001800274700001900292700001500311856013700326 2013 d00aShortest paths for wheeled robots with limited Field-Of-View: introducing the vertical constraint0 aShortest paths for wheeled robots with limited FieldOfView intro aFlorence, Italy a5143 - 514910aRobotics1 aSalaris, P1 aCristofaro, A1 aPallottino, L.1 aBicchi, A. uhttp://www.centropiaggio.unipi.it/publications/shortest-paths-wheeled-robots-limited-field-view-introducing-vertical-constraint.html00558nas a2200133 4500008003900000245009800039210006900137260002000206300001600226653001300242100001500255700001900270856013500289 2013 d00aA Subgradient Based Algorithm for Distributed Task Assignment for Heterogeneous Mobile Robots0 aSubgradient Based Algorithm for Distributed Task Assignment for aFlorence, Italy a3665 - 367010aRobotics1 aSettimi, A1 aPallottino, L. uhttp://www.centropiaggio.unipi.it/publications/subgradient-based-algorithm-distributed-task-assignment-heterogeneous-mobile-robots00562nas a2200133 4500008003900000245010400039210006900143260002000212300001600232653001300248100001600261700001900277856013200296 2013 d00aA time expanded network based algorithm for safe and efficient distributed multi-agent coordination0 atime expanded network based algorithm for safe and efficient dis aFlorence, Italy a2805 - 281010aRobotics1 aFerrati, M.1 aPallottino, L. uhttp://www.centropiaggio.unipi.it/publications/time-expanded-network-based-algorithm-safe-and-efficient-distributed-multi-agent00627nas a2200169 4500008004100000245007100041210006900112260004900181300001700230653001300247100001400260700001700274700001800291700001500309700001900324856011400343 2012 eng d00aMotion Planning for Two 3D-Dubins Vehicles with Distance Contraint0 aMotion Planning for Two 3DDubins Vehicles with Distance Contrain aVilamoura, Algarve, PortugalcOctober 7 - 12 a4702 - 4707 10aRobotics1 aMarino, H1 aBonizzato, M1 aBartalucci, R1 aSalaris, P1 aPallottino, L. uhttp://www.centropiaggio.unipi.it/publications/motion-planning-two-3d-dubins-vehicles-distance-contraint.html00565nas a2200145 4500008004100000245009300041210006900134300001300203490000700216653001300223100001500236700001900251700001500270856013400285 2012 eng d00aShortest Paths for Finned, Winged, Legged and Wheeled Vehicles with Side-Looking Sensors0 aShortest Paths for Finned Winged Legged and Wheeled Vehicles wit a997-10170 v3110aRobotics1 aSalaris, P1 aPallottino, L.1 aBicchi, A. uhttp://www.centropiaggio.unipi.it/publications/shortest-paths-finned-winged-legged-and-wheeled-vehicles-side-looking-sensors.html00454nas a2200121 4500008004100000245005600041210005300097260003300150653001300183100001900196700001500215856010200230 2011 eng d00aOn constrained optimal control problems in robotics0 aconstrained optimal control problems in robotics aPisa, ItalycSeptember 7 - 910aRobotics1 aPallottino, L.1 aSalaris, P uhttp://www.centropiaggio.unipi.it/publications/constrained-optimal-control-problems-robotics.html00613nas a2200157 4500008004100000245008400041210006900125260003500194300001600229653002100245653001300266100001300279700001700292700001900309856012700328 2011 eng d00aDecentralized Coordination System for Multiple AGVs in a Structured Environment0 aDecentralized Coordination System for Multiple AGVs in a Structu aMilano, italycAug 28 - Sept 1 a6005 - 601010aEmbedded Control10aRobotics1 aManca, S1 aFagiolini, A1 aPallottino, L. uhttp://www.centropiaggio.unipi.it/publications/decentralized-coordination-system-multiple-agvs-structured-environment.html00591nas a2200169 4500008004100000245006200041210006200103260004000165300001400205653002100219653001300240100001500253700001900268700001800287700001500305856010100320 2011 eng d00aFrom Optimal Planning to Visual Servoing with Limited FOV0 aFrom Optimal Planning to Visual Servoing with Limited FOV aS. Francisco, USAcSeptember 25 - 3 a2817-282410aEmbedded Control10aRobotics1 aSalaris, P1 aPallottino, L.1 aHutchinson, S1 aBicchi, A. uhttp://www.centropiaggio.unipi.it/publications/optimal-planning-visual-servoing-limited-fov.html01669nas a2200145 4500008003900000245009700039210006900136520109600205653002101301653001301322100001201335700001801347700001901365856013901384 2011 d00aNeighbourhood Monitoring for Decentralised Coordination in Multi-Agent Systems: A Case-Study0 aNeighbourhood Monitoring for Decentralised Coordination in Multi3 aDecentralized coordination of multi-agents requires that every agent reliably and efficiently disseminates its state to neighbours

through a wireless network. If dissemination is unreliable, safety issues may ensue. Unfortunately, the broadcast service of

wireless network is efficient but unreliable (e. g., IEEE 802.11). The Neighbourhood Monitoring Protocol (NMP) [1] is an efficient

and scalable protocol that assures a reliable state dissemination between mobile agents, under some conditions of channel

utilization. NMP runs on top of IEEE 802.11. In this paper we evaluate NMP with a specific decentralized collision avoidance

algorithm based on the GRP policy [2]. The algorithm is particularly challenging because it accommodates an arbitrary number

non-holonomic agents. We show that NMP allows the system to scale well and provides a very high state delivery ratio even if it

operates on the unreliable broadcast service like 802.11. Doing so, NMP assures the correct state information to the collision

avoidance algorithm.

This paper presents a complete characterization of shortest paths for unicycle-like nonholonomic mobile robots equipped with a pinhole camera rigidly fixed with limited Field-Of-View (FOV). We preliminarily provide an alphabet of optimal control words and then we demonstrate how to obtain the partition induced by shortest path in the vehicle plane. The word univocally associated to a region encodes the shortest path from any starting point in that region to the goal point of the mobile robot without violating the FOV constraints.

10aEmbedded Control10aRobotics1 aPallottino, L.1 aSalaris, P1 aFontanelli, D1 aBicchi, A. uhttp://www.centropiaggio.unipi.it/publications/shortest-paths-non-holonomic-vehicles-limited-field-view-camera.html00511nas a2200193 4500008004100000245004500041210004500086300001200131490000700143653001300150100001500163700001400178700001200192700001600204700001900220700001600239700001500255856004700270 2008 eng d00aHeterogeneous Wireless Multirobot System0 aHeterogeneous Wireless Multirobot System a62–700 v1510aRobotics1 aBicchi, A.1 aDanesi, A1 aDini, G1 aLa Porta, S1 aPallottino, L.1 aSavino, I M1 aSchiavi, R uhttp://dx.doi.org/10.1109/M-RA.2007.91492501224nas a2200217 4500008004100000245010200041210006900143260000900212300001400221520049500235653002100730653001300751100001700764700001300781700001700794700001500811700001400826700001500840700001900855856013200874 2007 eng d00aA Component-Based Approach to Localization and Collision Avoidance for Mobile Multi-Agent Systems0 aComponentBased Approach to Localization and Collision Avoidance cJuly a4285-42923 aIn the RUNES project a disaster relief tunnel scenario is being developed in which mobile robots are used to restore the radio network connectivity in a stationary sensor network. A component-based software development approach has been adopted. Two components are described in this paper. A localization component that uses ultrasound and dead reckoning to decide the robot positions and a collision avoidance component that ensures that the robots do not collide with each other.

10aEmbedded Control10aRobotics1 aAlriksson, P1 aNordh, J1 aArzén, K -E1 aBicchi, A.1 aDanesi, A1 aSchiavi, R1 aPallottino, L. uhttp://www.centropiaggio.unipi.it/publications/component-based-approach-localization-and-collision-avoidance-mobile-multi-agent02131nas a2200181 4500008004100000245008600041210006900127300001400196490000700210520150000217653002101717653001301738100001901751700001701770700001601787700001501803856013101818 2007 eng d00aDecentralized cooperative policy for conflict resolution in multi-vehicle systems0 aDecentralized cooperative policy for conflict resolution in mult a1170-11830 v233 aIn this paper we propose a novel policy for steering multiple vehicles between assigned independent start and goal configurations and ensuring collision avoidance. The policy rests on the assumption that agents are all cooperating by implementing the same traffic rules. However, the policy is completely decentralized, as each agent decides its own motion by applying those rules only on locally available information, and totally scalable, in the sense that the amount of information processed by each agent and the computational complexity of the algorithms are not increasing with the number of agents in the scenario. The proposed policy applies to systems in which new vehicle may enter the scene and start interacting with existing ones at any time, while others may leave. Under mild conditions on the initial configurations, the policy is shown to be safe, i.e. to guarantee collision avoidance throughout the system evolution. In the paper, conditions are discussed on the desired configurations of agents under which the ultimate convergence of all vehicles to their goals can also be guaranteed. To show that such conditions are actually necessary and sufficient, which turns out to be a challenging liveness verification problem for a complex hybrid automaton, we employ a probabilistic verification method. The paper finally reports on simulations for systems of several tens of vehicles, and with some experimental implementation showing the practicality of the approach.

10aEmbedded Control10aRobotics1 aPallottino, L.1 aScordio, V G1 aFrazzoli, E1 aBicchi, A. uhttp://www.centropiaggio.unipi.it/publications/decentralized-cooperative-policy-conflict-resolution-multi-vehicle-systems.html00841nas a2200181 4500008004100000245008100041210006900122300001400191520021300205653002100418653001300439100001700452700001500469700001900484700001200503700001500515856012900530 2007 eng d00aDecentralized Intrusion Detection for Secure Cooperative Multi-Agent Systems0 aDecentralized Intrusion Detection for Secure Cooperative MultiAg a1553-15583 aIn this paper we address the problem of detecting faulty behaviors of cooperative mobile agents. A novel decentralized and scalable architecture that can be adopted to realize a monitor of the agents

10aEmbedded Control10aRobotics1 aFagiolini, A1 aValenti, G1 aPallottino, L.1 aDini, G1 aBicchi, A. uhttp://www.centropiaggio.unipi.it/publications/decentralized-intrusion-detection-secure-cooperative-multi-agent-systems.html01355nas a2200157 4500008004100000245007300041210006900114260001000183520080000193653002100993653001301014100001701027700001901044700001201063856012201075 2007 eng d00aDecentralized Intrusion Detection in Cooperative Multi-Agent Systems0 aDecentralized Intrusion Detection in Cooperative MultiAgent Syst cApril3 aWe address the problem of detecting faulty behaviors of robots belonging to a multi-agent system. Our objective is to develop a scalable architecture that can be adopted to realize a completely decentralized intrusion detector monitoring the agents' behavior. We want the solution to be independent from the set of ``rules'' describing the interaction among the agents, and from their dynamics; (non-invasive) mainly based on HW/SW components that are already present on-board of each agent. We focus on systems with decentralized cooperation schemes where cooperation is obtained by sharing a set of ``rules'' by which each agent plans its next ``action'' and where some of the agents may act not according to the rules due to spontaneous failure, tampering, or malicious introduction.

10aEmbedded Control10aRobotics1 aFagiolini, A1 aPallottino, L.1 aDini, G uhttp://www.centropiaggio.unipi.it/publications/decentralized-intrusion-detection-cooperative-multi-agent-systems.html01142nas a2200145 4500008004100000245008200041210006900123300001600192520060000208653002100808653001300829100001900842700001500861856012000876 2007 eng d00aA Dynamic Programming Approach to Optimal Planning for Vehicles with Trailers0 aDynamic Programming Approach to Optimal Planning for Vehicles wi a3098 - 31033 aIn this paper we deal with the optimal feedback synthesis problem for robotic vehicles with trailers which can be modeled by differential equations in chained-form. With respect to classical methods for numerical evolution of optimal feedback synthesis via Dynamic Programming which are based on both input and state discretization, our method exploits the lattice structure naturally imposed on the reachable set by input quantization. A generalized Dijkstra algorithm can be used to obtain optimal feedback control laws, for chained-form vehicles with n-trailers, in an effective way.

10aEmbedded Control10aRobotics1 aPallottino, L.1 aBicchi, A. uhttp://www.centropiaggio.unipi.it/publications/dynamic-programming-approach-optimal-planning-vehicles-trailers.html01238nas a2200145 4500008004100000245009700041210006900138300001400207520064600221653002400867653002800891100001800919700001900937856013600956 2007 eng d00aHigher order method for non linear equations resolution: application to mobile robot control0 aHigher order method for non linear equations resolution applicat a3628-36343 aIn this paper a novel higher order method for the resolution of non linear equations is proposed. The particular application to the mobile robot navigation in an environment with obstacles is considered. The proposed method is based on the {\em embedded-relaxed} approach in which the dimension of the resolution space is augmented and a different and faster direction toward the root is computed. The method is proved to converge with higher order for the augmented resolution space of dimension 2 and 3. Finally, the method is applied to the problem of mobile robot navigation between obstacles considered as repulsive potentials.

10aAutonomous Vehicles10aNavigation and Planning1 aBalestrino, A1 aPallottino, L. uhttp://www.centropiaggio.unipi.it/publications/higher-order-method-non-linear-equations-resolution-application-mobile-robot-control01037nas a2200181 4500008004100000245010100041210006900142300001400211520038500225653002100610653001300631100001700644700001500661700001900676700001200695700001500707856013300722 2007 eng d00aLocal Monitor Implementation for Decentralized Intrusion Detection in Secure Multi-Agent Systems0 aLocal Monitor Implementation for Decentralized Intrusion Detecti a454–4593 aThis paper focuses on the detection of misbehaving agents within a group of mobile robots. A novel approach to automatically synthesize a decentralized Intrusion Detection System (IDS) as well as an efficient implementation of local monitors are presented. In our scenario, agents perform possibly different independent tasks, but cooperate to guarantee the entire system

10aEmbedded Control10aRobotics1 aFagiolini, A1 aValenti, G1 aPallottino, L.1 aDini, G1 aBicchi, A. uhttp://www.centropiaggio.unipi.it/publications/local-monitor-implementation-decentralized-intrusion-detection-secure-multi-agent01750nas a2200157 4500008004100000245011500041210006900156300001200225520113700237653002101374653001301395100001901408700001501427700001601442856013401458 2007 eng d00aProbabilistic verification of decentralized multi-agent control strategies: a case study in conflict avoidance0 aProbabilistic verification of decentralized multiagent control s a170-1753 aMany challenging verification problems arise from complex hybrid automata that model decentralized control systems. As an example, we will consider decentralized policies that steer multiple vehicles in a shared environment: properties of safety and liveness, such as collision avoidance and ultimate convergence of all vehicles to their goals, must be verified. To formally verify the behavior of proposed policies, it is desired to identify the broadest class of start and goal configurations, such that safety and liveness would be guaranteed. Simple conditions are proposed to identify such a class: ideally, a formal proof that such conditions are necessary and sufficient for safety and liveness is requested. Unfortunately, in decentralized control frameworks classical approaches are difficult to apply. Hence, probabilistic verification method can be applied to quantify the accuracy and the confidence of the veridicity of the desired predicate. The probabilistic verification method is applied to a recently proposed cooperative and completely decentralized collision avoidance policy for non-holonomic vehicles.

10aEmbedded Control10aRobotics1 aPallottino, L.1 aBicchi, A.1 aFrazzoli, E uhttp://www.centropiaggio.unipi.it/publications/probabilistic-verification-decentralized-multi-agent-control-strategies-case-study01455nas a2200157 4500008004100000245008500041210006900126520086800195653002101063653001301084100001901097700001701116700001601133700001501149856013301164 2006 eng d00aDecentralized and scalable conflict resolution strategy for multi-agents systems0 aDecentralized and scalable conflict resolution strategy for mult3 aA decentralized cooperative collision avoidance control policy for planar vehicle recently proposed is herein considered. Given some simple conditions on initial configurations of agents, the policy is known to ensure safety (i.e., collision avoidance) for an arbitrarily large number of vehicles. The method is highly scalable, and effective solutions can be obtained for several tens of autonomous agents. On the other hand, the liveness property of the policy, i.e. the capability of negotiating a solution in finite time, is not yet completely understood. First a 3D workspace extension is proposed. Furthermore, based on a condition on target configuration previously proposed, some general results on the liveness property are reported. Finally, qualitative evaluations on the strategy and on the proposed target sparsity condition are pointed out.

10aEmbedded Control10aRobotics1 aPallottino, L.1 aScordio, V G1 aFrazzoli, E1 aBicchi, A. uhttp://www.centropiaggio.unipi.it/publications/decentralized-and-scalable-conflict-resolution-strategy-multi-agents-systems.html01650nas a2200169 4500008004100000245010400041210006900145300001400214520101200228653002101240653001301261100001901274700001701293700001601310700001501326856013901341 2006 eng d00aProbabilistic verification of a decentralized policy for conflict resolution in multi-agent systems0 aProbabilistic verification of a decentralized policy for conflic a2448-24533 aIn this paper, we consider a decentralized cooperative control policy proposed recently for steering multiple non-holonomic vehicles between assigned start and goal configurations while avoiding collisions. The policy is known to ensure safety (i.e., collision avoidance) for an arbitrarily large number of vehicles, if initial configurations satisfy certain conditions. The method is highly scalable, and effective solutions can be obtained for several tens of autonomous agents. On the other hand, the liveness property of the policy, i.e. the capability of negotiating a solution in finite time, is not yet completely understood. In this paper, we introduce a condition on the final vehicle configurations, which we conjecture to be sufficient for guaranteeing liveness. Because of the overwhelming complexity of proving the sufficiency of such condition, we assess the correctness of the conjecture in probability through the analysis of the results of a large number of randomized experiments.

10aEmbedded Control10aRobotics1 aPallottino, L.1 aScordio, V G1 aFrazzoli, E1 aBicchi, A. uhttp://www.centropiaggio.unipi.it/publications/probabilistic-verification-decentralized-policy-conflict-resolution-multi-agent-systems01910nas a2200193 4500008004100000245010600041210006900147520122400216653002101440653001301461100001401474700001701488700001401505700001901519700001501538700001201553700001501565856013601580 2006 eng d00aA scalable platform for safe and secure decentralized traffic management of multiagent mobile systems0 ascalable platform for safe and secure decentralized traffic mana3 aIn this paper we describe the application of wireless sensor networking techniques to address the realization of a safe and secure decentralized traffic management system. We consider systems of many heterogeneous autonomous vehicles moving in a shared environment. Each vehicle is assumed to have different and possibly unspecified tasks, but they cooperate to avoid collisions. We are interested in designing a scalable architecture capable of accommodating a very large and dynamically changing number of vehicles, guaranteeing their safety (i.e., collision avoidance), the achievement of their goals, and security against potential adversaries. By properly distributing and revoking cryptographic keys we are able to protect communications from an external adversary as well as to detect non-cooperative, possibly malicious vehicles and trigger suitable countermeasures. In our architecture, scalability is obtained by decentralization, i.e. each vehicle is regarded as an autonomous agent capable of processing information concerning its own state and the state of only a fixed, small number of ``neighboring'' agents. Ad-hoc wireless sensor networks are employed to provide support for this architecture.

10aEmbedded Control10aRobotics1 aDanesi, A1 aFagiolini, A1 aSavino, I1 aPallottino, L.1 aSchiavi, R1 aDini, G1 aBicchi, A. uhttp://www.centropiaggio.unipi.it/publications/scalable-platform-safe-and-secure-decentralized-traffic-management-multiagent-mobile01297nas a2200157 4500008004100000245008500041210006900126520071000195653002100905653001300926100001900939700001700958700001600975700001500991856013301006 2005 eng d00aDecentralized Cooperative Conflict Resolution for Multiple Nonholonomic Vehicles0 aDecentralized Cooperative Conflict Resolution for Multiple Nonho3 aIn this paper, we consider the problem of collision-free motion planning for multiple nonholonomic planar vehicles. Each vehicle is capable of moving at constant speed along paths with bounded curvature, and is aware of the position and heading of other vehicles within a certain sensing radius. No other information exchange is required between vehicles. We propose a spatially decentralized, cooperative hybrid control policy that ensures safety for arbitrary numbers of vehicles. Furthermore, we show that under certain conditions, the policy avoids dead- and livelock, and eventually all vehicles reach their intended targets. Simulations and experimental results are presented and discussed.

10aEmbedded Control10aRobotics1 aPallottino, L.1 aScordio, V G1 aFrazzoli, E1 aBicchi, A. uhttp://www.centropiaggio.unipi.it/publications/decentralized-cooperative-conflict-resolution-multiple-nonholonomic-vehicles.html01218nas a2200193 4500008004100000245008900041210006900130520056300199653001300762100001800775700001500793700001300808700001600821700001600837700001600853700001900869700001600888856012000904 2005 eng d00aFrom tele-laboratory to e-learning in automation curricula at the university of Pisa0 aFrom telelaboratory to elearning in automation curricula at the 3 aThe design and development of computational infrastructures supporting existing tele-laboratory experiences in the field of automation and robotics are described. The goal of the activity is to provide a proper e-learning environment in which remote laboratory experiences are integrated in a coherent way. The addition of e-learning features, as self-assessment and progress monitoring tools, asynchronous tutor interaction, authentication, evaluation and follow-up features, has led also to the modification of the original tele-laboratory set-up.

10aRobotics1 aBalestrino, A1 aBicchi, A.1 aCaiti, A1 aCalabrò, V1 aCecchini, T1 aCoppelli, A1 aPallottino, L.1 aTonietti, G uhttp://www.centropiaggio.unipi.it/publications/tele-laboratory-e-learning-automation-curricula-university-pisa.html01003nas a2200169 4500008004100000245007700041210006900118300001200187490000700199520043900206653001300645100001500658700001300673700001900686700001600705856011200721 2005 eng d00aOn-line Robotic Experiments for Tele-Education at the University of Pisa0 aOnline Robotic Experiments for TeleEducation at the University o a217-2300 v223 aIn this paper we describe work being done at our department to make the Robotics Laboratory accessible to student and colleagues, to execute and watch real-time experiments at any time and from anywhere. We describe few different installations, and highlight the underlying philosophy, wich is aimed at enlarging the lab in all the dimensions of space, time, and available resources, through the use of Internet technologies.

10aRobotics1 aBicchi, A.1 aCaiti, A1 aPallottino, L.1 aTonietti, G uhttp://www.centropiaggio.unipi.it/publications/line-robotic-experiments-tele-education-university-pisa.html01283nas a2200157 4500008004100000245009000041210006900131300001400200520068900214653002100903653001300924100001900937700001700956700001500973856013700988 2004 eng d00aDecentralized Cooperative Conflict Resolution Among Multiple Autonomous Mobile Agents0 aDecentralized Cooperative Conflict Resolution Among Multiple Aut a4758-47633 aIn this paper we consider policies for cooperative, decentralized traffic management among a number of autonomous mobile agents. The conflict resolution problem is addressed considering realistic restrictions on possible maneuvers. We formulate this problem as one in Mixed Integer Linear Programming (MILP). The method, which proves successful in a centralized implementation with a large number of cooperating agents, is also extended to a decentralized setting. Conditions for the existence of conflict avoidance maneuvers for a system of 5 autonomous agents with a transitive information structure are provided, along with the explicit policy to be applied by each agent.

10aEmbedded Control10aRobotics1 aPallottino, L.1 aScordio, V G1 aBicchi, A. uhttp://www.centropiaggio.unipi.it/publications/decentralized-cooperative-conflict-resolution-among-multiple-autonomous-mobile-agents01424nas a2200169 4500008004100000245004900041210004900090300001400139520089700153653002101050653001301071100001601084700001901100700001901119700001501138856010101153 2004 eng d00aMotion Planning through Symbols and Lattices0 aMotion Planning through Symbols and Lattices a3914-39193 aIn this paper we propose a new approach to motion planning, based on the introduction of a lattice structure in the workspace of the robot, leading to efficient computations of plans for rather complex vehicles, and allowing for the implementation of optimization procedures in a rather straightforward way. The basic idea is the purposeful restriction of the set of possible inputfunctions to the vehicle to a finite set of symbols, or {\em control quanta},which, under suitable conditions, generate a regular lattice of reachable points. Once the lattice is generated and a convenient description computed, standard techniques in integer linear programming can be used to find a plan very efficiently. We also provide a correct and complete algorithm to the problem of finding an optimized plan (with respect e.g. to length minimization) consisting in a sequence of graph searches.

10aEmbedded Control10aRobotics1 aPancanti, S1 aPallottino, L.1 aSalvadorini, D1 aBicchi, A. uhttp://www.centropiaggio.unipi.it/publications/motion-planning-through-symbols-and-lattices.html01230nas a2200229 4500008004100000245010300041210006900144300001400213520047100227653001300698100001800711700001500729700001300744700001600757700001900773700001400792700001600806700001300822700001300835700001500848856013700863 2004 eng d00aA Robotic Set-Up with Remote Access for ``Pick and Place'' Operations Under Uncertainty Conditions0 aRobotic SetUp with Remote Access for Pick and Place Operations U a144–1493 aThe work describes on-going work at the University of Pisa on the field of tele-laboratories and distance learning. In particular, the group is working at the evolution of existing tele-laboratory experiments in the field of robotics and control into learning units of a self-consistent didactic project. The pick-and-place system described has been designed to provide the set-up for robot arm motion planning with specific objectives and evaluation tools.

10aRobotics1 aBalestrino, A1 aBicchi, A.1 aCaiti, A1 aCecchini, T1 aPallottino, L.1 aPisani, A1 aTonietti, G1 aBorza, P1 aGomes, L1 aScutaru, G uhttp://www.centropiaggio.unipi.it/publications/robotic-set-remote-access-pick-and-place-operations-under-uncertainty-conditions.html01569nas a2200181 4500008004100000245010600041210006900147260001000216300000900226490000600235520093300241653002101174653001301195100001901208700001301227700001501240856013201255 2002 eng d00aConflict Resolution Problems for Air Traffic Management Systems Solved with Mixed Integer Programming0 aConflict Resolution Problems for Air Traffic Management Systems cMarch a3-110 v33 aThis paper considers the problem of solving conflicts arising among several aircraft that are assumed to move in a shared airspace. Aircraft can not get closer to each other than a given safety distance in order to avoid possible conflicts between different airplanes. For such system of multiple aircraft, we consider the path planning problem among given waypoints avoiding all possible conflicts. In particular we are interested in optimal paths, i.e. we want to minimize the total flight time. We propose two different formulations of the multi-aircraft conflict avoidance problem as a mixed-integer linear program: in the first case only velocity changes are admissible maneuvers, in the second one only heading angle changes are allowed. Due to the linear formulation of the two problems, solutions may be obtained quickly with standard optimization software, allowing our approach to be implemented in real time.

10aEmbedded Control10aRobotics1 aPallottino, L.1 aFeron, E1 aBicchi, A. uhttp://www.centropiaggio.unipi.it/publications/conflict-resolution-problems-air-traffic-management-systems-solved-mixed-integer01569nas a2200217 4500008004100000245004700041210004700088260004100135300001200176490001400188520092000202653002101122653001301143100001601156700001601172700001901188700001501207700001401222700001901236856009601255 2002 eng d00aOptimal control of quantized input systems0 aOptimal control of quantized input systems aHeidelberg, GermanybSpringer-Verlag a351-3630 vLNCS 22893 aIn this paper we consider the problem of optimal control (specifically, minimum-time steering) for systems with quantized inputs. In particular, we propose a new approach to the solution of the optimal control problem for an important class of nonlinear systems, i.e. chained-form systems. By exploiting results on the structure of the reachability set of these systems under quantized control, the optimal solution is determined solving an integer linear programming problem. Our algorithm represents an improvement with respect to classical approaches in terms of exactness, as it does not resort to any a priori state-space discretization. Although the computational complexity of the problem in our formulation is still formally exponential, it lends itself to application of Branch and Bound techniques, which substantially cuts down computations in many cases, as it has been experimentally observed.

10aEmbedded Control10aRobotics1 aPancanti, S1 aLeonardi, L1 aPallottino, L.1 aBicchi, A.1 aTomlin, C1 aGreenstreet, M uhttp://www.centropiaggio.unipi.it/publications/optimal-control-quantized-input-systems.html01415nas a2200157 4500008004100000245005100041210004800092260001600140520092000156653002101076653001301097100001601110700001901126700001501145856009701160 2002 eng d00aOn Optimal Steering of Quantized Input Systems0 aOptimal Steering of Quantized Input Systems aUrbana, IL.3 aIn this paper we consider the problem of optimal control (specifically, minimum-time steering) for systems with quantized inputs. In particular, we propose a new approach to the solution of the optimal control problem for an important class of nonlinear systems, i.e. chained-form systems. By exploiting results on the structure of the reachability set of these systems under quantized control, the optimal solution is determined solving an integer linear programming problem. Our algorithm represents an improvement with respect to classical approaches in terms of exactness, as it does not resort to any a priori state-space discretization. Although the computational complexity of the problem in our formulation is still formally exponential, it lends itself to application of Branch and Bound techniques, which substantially cuts down computations in many cases, as it has been experimentally observed.

10aEmbedded Control10aRobotics1 aPancanti, S1 aPallottino, L.1 aBicchi, A. uhttp://www.centropiaggio.unipi.it/publications/optimal-steering-quantized-input-systems.html00601nas a2200145 4500008004100000245010300041210006900144260002800213300001200241653002100253653001300274100001900287700001500306856013400321 2002 eng d00aRisoluzione ottima dei conflitti tra agenti autonomi: applicazione al controllo del traffico aereo0 aRisoluzione ottima dei conflitti tra agenti autonomi applicazion aENEA, FrascaticOctober a193-19710aEmbedded Control10aRobotics1 aPallottino, L.1 aBicchi, A. uhttp://www.centropiaggio.unipi.it/publications/risoluzione-ottima-dei-conflitti-tra-agenti-autonomi-applicazione-al-controllo-del01471nas a2200169 4500008004100000245009700041210006900138260000800207300001200215520085500227653002101082653001301103100001901116700001501135700001601150856013501166 2002 eng d00aSafety of a decentralized scheme for Free-Flight ATMS using Mixed Integer Linear Programming0 aSafety of a decentralized scheme for FreeFlight ATMS using Mixed cMay a742-7473 aIn this paper we consider policies for free-flight management of air traffic. We consider instantaneous and bounded heading angle deviation as conflict avoidance maneuvers. The corresponding model, resulting in a Mixed Integer Linear Programming (MILP) problem allow to solve both conflict detection and conflict resolution problems. The developed algorithm proved successful in a centralized implementation with a large number of cooperating aircraft. However, the application of such algorithm to a Free Flight environment, where cooperation can only be expected from neighboring aircraft, poses many challenges. We consider a model of the decentralized conflict resolution strategy that is based on a hybrid system, and sufficient conditions under which a 3-aircraft Free Flight MILP-based scheme guarantees safety of flight are provided.

10aEmbedded Control10aRobotics1 aPallottino, L.1 aBicchi, A.1 aPancanti, S uhttp://www.centropiaggio.unipi.it/publications/safety-decentralized-scheme-free-flight-atms-using-mixed-integer-linear-programming01080nas a2200157 4500008004100000245006300041210006300104520051000167653003500677653002400712653002800736100001900764700001300783700001500796856011100811 2001 eng d00aMixed Integer Programming for Aircraft Conflict Resolution0 aMixed Integer Programming for Aircraft Conflict Resolution3 aThis paper considers the problem of solving conflicts between several aircraft. Considering the case when only aircraft heading changes are allowed, we propose a formulation of the multi-aircraft conflict avoidance problem as a mixed-integer linear program, whose solution may be obtained within seconds with standard optimization software. While such a problem formulation and solution is still unsuitable for operational implementation, it may be used as part of a real or fast-time simulation.

10aAir Traffic Management Systems10aAutonomous Vehicles10aNavigation and Planning1 aPallottino, L.1 aFeron, E1 aBicchi, A. uhttp://www.centropiaggio.unipi.it/publications/mixed-integer-programming-aircraft-conflict-resolution.html01513nas a2200181 4500008004100000245009500041210006900136300001400205490000600219520084600225653004801071653001201119100001501131700001901146700001201165700001501177856013901192 2001 eng d00aRandomized parallel simulation of constrained multibody systems for VR/haptic applications0 aRandomized parallel simulation of constrained multibody systems a2319-23240 v33 aIn this paper, we consider the problem of efficiently simulating large interconnected mechanical systems. For applications such as haptic rendering of large, complex virtual environments, dynamic simulation software and hardware is still too slow to afford accurate performance in real-time. In particular, mechanisms with closed kinematic chains necessitate solutions to a set of differential equation with algebraic constraints (DAE's), that are often too heavy and stiff to be computed in real-time by present-day single-processor machines. On the other hand, the structure of most state-of-the-art algorithms does not easily lend itself to parallelization. In this paper, we propose and experimentally verify a technique for DAE simulation that profitably uses a degree of randomization to achieve efficient parallelization.

10aDynamics and Simulation for Virtual Reality10aHaptics1 aBicchi, A.1 aPallottino, L.1 aBray, M1 aPerdomi, P uhttp://www.centropiaggio.unipi.it/publications/randomized-parallel-simulation-constrained-multibody-systems-vrhaptic-applications.html01269nas a2200169 4500008004100000245006300041210005600104260001700160300001200177520068500189653003500874653002400909653002800933100001900961700001500980856010400995 2000 eng d00aOn the optimal conflict resolution for air traffic control0 aoptimal conflict resolution for air traffic control aDearborn, MI a167-1723 aIn this paper, we consider optimal resolution of air traffic conflicts. Aircraft are assumed to cruise within a given altitude layer, and are modeled as a kinematic system with velocity constraints and curvature bounds. Aircraft can not get closer to each other than a predefined safety distance. For such system of multiple aircraft, we consider the problem of planning optimal paths among given waypoints. Necessary conditions for optimality of solutions are derived, and used to devise a parameterization of possible trajectories that turns into efficient numerical solutions to the problem. Simulation results for a simplified aircraft conflict scenario are provided.

10aAir Traffic Management Systems10aAutonomous Vehicles10aNavigation and Planning1 aPallottino, L.1 aBicchi, A. uhttp://www.centropiaggio.unipi.it/publications/optimal-conflict-resolution-air-traffic-control.html01674nas a2200193 4500008004100000245008200041210006900123260001300192300001200205490000600217520096700223653003501190653002401225653004001249653003001289100001501319700001901334856012701353 2000 eng d00aOn optimal cooperative conflict resolution for air traffic management systems0 aoptimal cooperative conflict resolution for air traffic manageme cDecember a221-2310 v13 aIn this paper, we consider optimal resolution of air traffic conflicts. Aircraft are assumed to cruise within a given altitude layer, and are modeled as a kinematic system with constant velocity and curvature bounds. Aircraft can not get closer to each other than a predefined safety distance. For such system of multiple aircraft, we consider the problem of planning optimal paths among given waypoints. Necessary conditions for optimality of solutions are derived, and used to devise a parameterization of possible trajectories that turns into efficient numerical solutions to the problem. Simulation results for a realistic aircraft conflict scenario are provided. A decentralized implementation of the optimal conflict resolution scheme is introduced that may allow free-flight coordination in a cooperative airspace management scheme. Impact of decentralization on performance and safety is finally discussed with the help of extensive simulations.

10aAir Traffic Management Systems10aAutonomous Vehicles10aHybrid and Embedded Control Systems10aNonlinear Control Systems1 aBicchi, A.1 aPallottino, L. uhttp://www.centropiaggio.unipi.it/publications/optimal-cooperative-conflict-resolution-air-traffic-management-systems.html01284nas a2200217 4500008004100000245006900041210006900110260001900179300001200198490000600210520057900216653003500795653002400830653002800854100001500882700001900897700001400916700001300930700001100943856011200954 2000 eng d00aOptimal planning for coordinated vehicles with bounded curvature0 aOptimal planning for coordinated vehicles with bounded curvature bA K Peters, MA a167-1720 v13 aIn this paper we consider the problem of planning motions of a system of multiple vehicles moving in a plane. Each vehicle is modelled as a kinematic system with velocity constraints and curvature bounds. Vehicles can not get closer to each other than a predefined safety distance. For such system of multiple vehicles, we consider the problem of planning optimal paths in the absence of obstacles. The case when a constant distance between vehicles is enforced (such as when cooperative manipulation of objects is performed by the vehicle team) is also considered.

10aAir Traffic Management Systems10aAutonomous Vehicles10aNavigation and Planning1 aBicchi, A.1 aPallottino, L.1 aDonald, B1 aLynch, K1 aRus, D uhttp://www.centropiaggio.unipi.it/publications/optimal-planning-coordinated-vehicles-bounded-curvature.html00959nas a2200169 4500008004100000245004100041210004100082260000900123300001200132520047300144653002100617653001300638100001900651700001800670700001500688856008600703 2000 eng d00aShortest paths for teams of vehicles0 aShortest paths for teams of vehicles cJune a124-1293 aIn this paper we consider the problem of planning motions of a team of vehicles that move in a planar environment. Each vehicle is modelled as a kinematic system with velocity constraints and curvature bounds. Vehicles can not get closer to each other than a predefined safety distance. When manipulating a common object cooperatively, further constraints apply. For such systems, we consider the problem of planning optimal paths in the absence of obstacles.

10aEmbedded Control10aRobotics1 aPallottino, L.1 aParlangeli, G1 aBicchi, A. uhttp://www.centropiaggio.unipi.it/publications/shortest-paths-teams-vehicles.html