We present an industrial case study in automotive control of significant complexity: the new common-rail fuel- injection system for Diesel engines developed by Magneti Marelli Powertrain. In this system, an inlet metering valve, inserted before the High Pressure (HP) pump, regulates the fuel flow that supplies the common rail according to the engine operating point (e.g. engine speed and torque). The standard approach to controller design adopted in the automotive in- dustry is based on mean-value models of the plant. However, the fuel injection system exhibits complex discrete-continuous interactions, due to the slow time-varying frequency of the HP pump cycles and the fast sampling frequency of sensing and actuation. Hence, a hybrid approach to controller design is very promising. In this paper, we present the synthesis of a hybrid multi-rate controller for a Magneti Marelli Powertrain common-rail fuel- injection system for four-cylinder multi-jet engines. Controller design is based on a hybrid model of the injection system. The resulting hybrid controller performs significantly better then previous controllers developed in the company on the basis of mean-value models of the plant.

10aEmbedded Control10aRobotics1 aBalluchi, A1 aBicchi, A.1 aMazzi, E1 aSangiovanni-Vincentelli, A1 aSerra, G uhttp://www.centropiaggio.unipi.it/publications/hybrid-multi-rate-control-common-rail.html01946nas a2200229 4500008004100000245006900041210006900110260002000179300001000199490001600209520122400225653002101449653001301470100001601483700001501499700001301514700003201527700001301559700001601572700001401588856011401602 2006 eng d00aHybrid Modelling and Control of the Common Rail Injection System0 aHybrid Modelling and Control of the Common Rail Injection System bSpringer-Verlag a79-920 v3927 / 20063 aWe present an industrial case study in automotive control of significant complexity: the new common rail fuel injection system for Diesel engines, currently under production by Magneti Marelli Powertrain. In this system, a flow-rate valve, introduced before the High Pressure (HP) pump, regulates the fuel flow that supplies the common rail according to the engine operating point. The standard approach followed in automotive control is to use a mean-value model for the plant and to develop a controller based on this model. In this particular case, this approach does not provide a satisfactory solution as the discrete-continuous interactions in the fuel injection system, due to the slow time-varying frequency of the HP pump cycles and the fast sampling frequency of sensing and actuation, play a fundamental role. We present a design approach based on a hybrid model of the Magneti Marelli Powertrain common-rail fuel-injection system for four-cylinder multi-jet engines and a hybrid approach to the design of a rail pressure controller. The hybrid controller is compared with a classical mean-value based approach to automotive control design whereby the quality of the hybrid solution is demonstrated.

10aEmbedded Control10aRobotics1 aBalluchi, A1 aBicchi, A.1 aMazzi, E1 aVincentelli, Sangiovanni, A1 aSerra, G1 aHespanha, J1 aTiwari, A uhttp://www.centropiaggio.unipi.it/publications/hybrid-modelling-and-control-common-rail-injection-system.html02054nas a2200181 4500008004100000245007900041210006900120260001200189300001400201490000700215520144800222653002101670653001301691100001601704700001501720700001601735856012101751 2005 eng d00aPath-Following with a Bounded-Curvature Vehicle: a Hybrid Control Approach0 aPathFollowing with a BoundedCurvature Vehicle a Hybrid Control A cOctober a1228-12470 v783 aIn this paper, we consider the problem of stabilizing the kinematic model of a car to a path in the plane under rather general conditions. The path is subject to very mild restrictions, while the car model, although rather simplified, contains the most relevant limitations inherent in wheeled robots kinematics. Namely, the car can only move forward, its steering radius is lower bounded and a limited sensory information only provides a partial knowledge of some state parameters. In particular, we consider the case that the current distance and the heading angle error with respect to the closest point on the reference path can be measured but only the sign of the path curvature is detected. These constraints are such to make classical control techniques inefficient. As the feedback information is both continuous and discrete, the hybrid systems formalism turns out to be well appropriate to model the problem. The proposed approach is based on optimal control techniques successfully applied in a previous work for following rectilinear path. We propose here an extension to the tracking of more general paths with moderate curvature. The stability of the closed-loop system is proved by means of the hybrid system formalism and hybrid formal verification techniques. Finally, the practicality of the proposed approach, in spite of non–idealities in real-world applications, is discussed by reporting experimental results.

10aEmbedded Control10aRobotics1 aBalluchi, A1 aBicchi, A.1 aSouères, P uhttp://www.centropiaggio.unipi.it/publications/path-following-bounded-curvature-vehicle-hybrid-control-approach.html01449nas a2200193 4500008004100000245005400041210005400095300001600149520083600165653002101001653001301022100001601035700001601051700001501067700001501082700003101097700001901128856010801147 2005 eng d00aRandomized Algorithms for Platform–based Design0 aRandomized Algorithms for Platform–based Design a6638 - 66433 aThe design of automotive control systems is becoming increasingly complex as the level of performance required by car manufactures grows continuously and the constraints on cost and development time imposed by the market become tighter. A successful design, without costly and time consuming re-design cycles, can be achieved only by using an efficient design methodology that allows for component re-use and evaluation of platform requirements at the early stages of the design flow. In this paper, we illustrate a control-implementation design methodology for the development of embedded controllers by composition of algorithms picked up from libraries. Randomized algorithms and hybrid system theory are used to develop techniques for functional and architecture evaluations, which are implemented in a prototype tool.

10aEmbedded Control10aRobotics1 aAgostini, A1 aBalluchi, A1 aBicchi, A.1 aPiccoli, B1 aSangiovanni Vincentelli, A1 aZadarnowska, K uhttp://www.centropiaggio.unipi.it/publications/randomized-algorithms-platform%E2%80%93based-design.html00972nas a2200169 4500008004100000245010100041210006900142260001200211300001200223490000700235520035900242653002100601653001300622100001600635700001500651856013600666 2003 eng d00aNecessary and Sufficient Conditions for Robust Perfect Tracking under Variable Structure Control0 aNecessary and Sufficient Conditions for Robust Perfect Tracking c02/2003 a141-1510 v133 aThe tracking control of linear MIMO systems with structured uncertainty is considered. A necessary and sufficient condition for robust asymptotic tracking employing variable structure techniques in the presence of multiplicative uncertainty is derived. The constructive proof of the theorem provides an explicit formula for controller synthesis.

10aEmbedded Control10aRobotics1 aBalluchi, A1 aBicchi, A. uhttp://www.centropiaggio.unipi.it/publications/necessary-and-sufficient-conditions-robust-perfect-tracking-under-variable-structure01002nas a2200169 4500008004100000245006200041210006100103300001400164520043800178653002100616653001300637100001300650700001600663700003200679700001500711856010600726 2003 eng d00aStabilization of a class of discrete-time hybrid automata0 aStabilization of a class of discretetime hybrid automata a1147-11523 aIn this paper, the problem of stabilizing linear discrete time hybrid automata is considered. A synthesis methodology is obtained by extending to hybrid systems the stabilization techniques based on stable convex combinations, originally developed for switching systems. An algorithm to explore the candidate stabilizing controller actions is proposed and an application to an automotive engine control problem is described.

10aEmbedded Control10aRobotics1 aZoncu, M1 aBalluchi, A1 aVincentelli, Sangiovanni, A1 aBicchi, A. uhttp://www.centropiaggio.unipi.it/publications/stabilization-class-discrete-time-hybrid-automata.html00771nas a2200205 4500008004100000245007700041210006900118260004100187300001200228490000900240653002400249653004000273653003000313100001600343700001600359700001500375700002200390700003300412856012000445 2001 eng d00aHybrid Feedback Control for Path Tracking by a Bounded-Curvature Vehicle0 aHybrid Feedback Control for Path Tracking by a BoundedCurvature aHeidelberg, GermanybSpringer-Verlag a133-1460 v203410aAutonomous Vehicles10aHybrid and Embedded Control Systems10aNonlinear Control Systems1 aBalluchi, A1 aSouères, P1 aBicchi, A.1 aDi Benedetto, M D1 aSangiovanni-Vincentelli, A L uhttp://www.centropiaggio.unipi.it/publications/hybrid-feedback-control-path-tracking-bounded-curvature-vehicle.html00664nas a2200181 4500008004100000245008000041210006900121260000900190300001400199490000700213653002400220653004000244653003000284100001600314700001600330700001500346856012100361 2001 eng d00aOptimal feedback control for line tracking with a bounded-curvature vehicle0 aOptimal feedback control for line tracking with a boundedcurvatu cJuly a1009-10190 v7410aAutonomous Vehicles10aHybrid and Embedded Control Systems10aNonlinear Control Systems1 aSouères, P1 aBalluchi, A1 aBicchi, A. uhttp://www.centropiaggio.unipi.it/publications/optimal-feedback-control-line-tracking-bounded-curvature-vehicle.html00686nas a2200205 4500008004100000245005500041210005400096260003700150300001200187490000600199653001500205653002400220653004000244100001600284700001500300700001600315700001300331700003300344856010300377 2000 eng d00aHybrid Tracking Control for Spark-Ignition Engines0 aHybrid Tracking Control for SparkIgnition Engines aSydney, NSW, AustraliacDecember a3126-310 v410aAutomotive10aAutonomous Vehicles10aHybrid and Embedded Control Systems1 aBalluchi, A1 aBicchi, A.1 aCaterini, C1 aRossi, C1 aSangiovanni-Vincentelli, A L uhttp://www.centropiaggio.unipi.it/publications/hybrid-tracking-control-spark-ignition-engines.html00567nas a2200145 4500008004100000245008100041210006900122260003400191300001400225653001300239100001600252700001600268700001500284856012200299 2000 eng d00aOptimal Feedback Control for Route Tracking with a Bounded-Curvature Vehicle0 aOptimal Feedback Control for Route Tracking with a BoundedCurvat aSan Francisco, CA, USAcApril a2473-247810aRobotics1 aSouères, P1 aBalluchi, A1 aBicchi, A. uhttp://www.centropiaggio.unipi.it/publications/optimal-feedback-control-route-tracking-bounded-curvature-vehicle.html00727nas a2200193 4500008004100000245008900041210006900130260003200199300001000231490000600241653002400247653004000271653003000311100001600341700001500357700001500372700001600387856013000403 2000 eng d00aStability and Robustness of Optimal Synthesis for Route Tracking by Dubins' Vehicles0 aStability and Robustness of Optimal Synthesis for Route Tracking aSydney, AustraliacDecember a581-60 v110aAutonomous Vehicles10aHybrid and Embedded Control Systems10aNonlinear Control Systems1 aBalluchi, A1 aBicchi, A.1 aPiccoli, B1 aSouères, P uhttp://www.centropiaggio.unipi.it/publications/stability-and-robustness-optimal-synthesis-route-tracking-dubins-vehicles.html00588nas a2200145 4500008004100000245008500041210006900126300001200195490000600207653004000213653003000253100001600283700001500299856012800314 1999 eng d00aDecentralized Variable Structure Tracking for Systems with Time-Domain Dominance0 aDecentralized Variable Structure Tracking for Systems with TimeD a265-2910 v910aHybrid and Embedded Control Systems10aNonlinear Control Systems1 aBalluchi, A1 aBicchi, A. uhttp://www.centropiaggio.unipi.it/publications/decentralized-variable-structure-tracking-systems-time-domain-dominance.html00643nas a2200181 4500008004100000245006000041210006000101260003200161300001200193653001500205653004000220100001600260700001500276700001500291700001300306700003300319856010900352 1998 eng d00aHybrid Optimization Problems in Automotive Applications0 aHybrid Optimization Problems in Automotive Applications aGrenoble, FrancecSeptember a273-27810aAutomotive10aHybrid and Embedded Control Systems1 aBalluchi, A1 aBicchi, A.1 aPadroni, G1 aRossi, C1 aSangiovanni-Vincentelli, A L uhttp://www.centropiaggio.unipi.it/publications/hybrid-optimization-problems-automotive-applications.html00605nas a2200145 4500008004100000245009600041210006900137653002400206653003000230100001500260700001600275700002000291700001500311856013300326 1997 eng d00aIntroducing the Sphericle: an experimental testbed for research and teaching in nonholonomy0 aIntroducing the Sphericle an experimental testbed for research a10aAutonomous Vehicles10aNonlinear Control Systems1 aBicchi, A.1 aBalluchi, A1 aPrattichizzo, D1 aGorelli, A uhttp://www.centropiaggio.unipi.it/publications/introducing-sphericle-experimental-testbed-research-and-teaching-nonholonomy.html00567nas a2200121 4500008004100000245010100041210006900142653004000211653003000251100001600281700001500297856013300312 1997 eng d00aNecessary and Sufficient Dominance Conditions for Robust Decentralization of VS Tracking Control0 aNecessary and Sufficient Dominance Conditions for Robust Decentr10aHybrid and Embedded Control Systems10aNonlinear Control Systems1 aBalluchi, A1 aBicchi, A. uhttp://www.centropiaggio.unipi.it/publications/necessary-and-sufficient-dominance-conditions-robust-decentralization-vs-tracking00514nas a2200157 4500008004100000245004300041210004200084653002400126653002100150653003000171100001600201700001500217700001800232700001600250856009000266 1996 eng d00aPath Tracking Control for Dubin's Cars0 aPath Tracking Control for Dubins Cars10aAutonomous Vehicles10aEmbedded Control10aNonlinear Control Systems1 aBalluchi, A1 aBicchi, A.1 aBalestrino, A1 aCasalino, G uhttp://www.centropiaggio.unipi.it/publications/path-tracking-control-dubins-cars.html00563nas a2200145 4500008004100000245007900041210006900120653002400189653002000213100001600233700001500249700001600264700002000280856011700300 1996 eng d00aReflex Control of Locomotion for a Four-Legged Vehicle with Leg Redundancy0 aReflex Control of Locomotion for a FourLegged Vehicle with Leg R10aAutonomous Vehicles10aLegged Vehicles1 aBalluchi, A1 aBicchi, A.1 aCasalino, G1 aPrattichizzo, D uhttp://www.centropiaggio.unipi.it/publications/reflex-control-locomotion-four-legged-vehicle-leg-redundancy.html00587nas a2200145 4500008004100000245008700041210006900128260000900197653002100206653003000227100001600257700001500273700001800288856013500306 1995 eng d00aQuasi-Block Diagonal Dominance Condition for Robust Decentralized Tracking Control0 aQuasiBlock Diagonal Dominance Condition for Robust Decentralized aRome10aEmbedded Control10aNonlinear Control Systems1 aBalluchi, A1 aBicchi, A.1 aBalestrino, A uhttp://www.centropiaggio.unipi.it/publications/quasi-block-diagonal-dominance-condition-robust-decentralized-tracking-control.html00609nas a2200145 4500008004100000245008700041210006900128300001400197653004000211653003000251100001500281700001600296700001800312856013300330 1994 eng d00aA Diagonal Dominance Condition for Robust Decentralized Variable Structure Control0 aDiagonal Dominance Condition for Robust Decentralized Variable S a2324-232910aHybrid and Embedded Control Systems10aNonlinear Control Systems1 aBicchi, A.1 aBalluchi, A1 aBalestrino, A uhttp://www.centropiaggio.unipi.it/publications/diagonal-dominance-condition-robust-decentralized-variable-structure-control.html00676nas a2200157 4500008004100000245011300041210006900154260001400223653002400237653004000261653003000301100001500331700001600346700001800362856013800380 1994 eng d00aTime-Domain Dominance Condition for Decentralized Variable Structure Control of Systems in Input-Output Form0 aTimeDomain Dominance Condition for Decentralized Variable Struct aBenevento10aAutonomous Vehicles10aHybrid and Embedded Control Systems10aNonlinear Control Systems1 aBicchi, A.1 aBalluchi, A1 aBalestrino, A uhttp://www.centropiaggio.unipi.it/publications/time-domain-dominance-condition-decentralized-variable-structure-control-systems-input00642nas a2200133 4500008004100000245014400041210006900185653004000254653003000294100001600324700001800340700001500358856013500373 1993 eng d00aEfficient Parallel Algorithm for Optimal Block Decomposition of Transfer Function Matrices for Decentralized Control of Large-Scale Systems0 aEfficient Parallel Algorithm for Optimal Block Decomposition of 10aHybrid and Embedded Control Systems10aNonlinear Control Systems1 aBalluchi, A1 aBalestrino, A1 aBicchi, A. uhttp://www.centropiaggio.unipi.it/publications/efficient-parallel-algorithm-optimal-block-decomposition-transfer-function-matrices